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Tectonics

Structure of the Earth


























Alfred Wegner
All continents had ice therefore could once have belonged to one large
ice sheet. One large land mass called Pangaea which split into Laurasia
and Gondwana and then continued to split.







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Plate Boundaries

Constructive Margins
Destructive Margins
Compression Margins
Conservative Margins







Constructive or Tensional:
Mid Atlantic Ridge:
















Destructive or Compressional:
S. America and Nazca:








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Collision:
Himalayas:







Conservative:
San Andreas Fault:






1906 ground moved 6m 450 dead, 28000 buildings destroyed
1989 similar earthquake but less damage due to improved buildings


Types of Volcanoes

Shield:
Eg. Mauno Loa


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Composite:
Eg Etna:







Sometimes the magma solidifies before it reaches the crater, blocking it.
Pressure builds up and there is a violent explosion. Sometime the magma
finds an alternative route:















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Earthquakes
Result of a sudden movement at fault or plate boundary


















Richter Scale
This measures the size of the waves produced by the earthquake, using
a Seismograph. It is logarithmic, meaning that 5 on the Richter scale is
ten times stringer than a 4 of the Richter scale.

Mercalli Scale…

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Fold Mountains

River Deposits Sediment into Geosyncline:





Sediment has been compressed to form sedimentary rock:






The mountains weld continents together:

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Folding:
Under pressure from each side, rock will fold:





A = Antisyncline (up fold)
S = Syncline (down fold)

Land use in the Alps





Farming
The valley floor is ideal for farming the land is flat sheltered with deep
fertile soil. Traditional dairy farming used transhumance in the summer
cattle…

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locals. Attracts skiers, climbers and walkers. Beautiful scenery, lakeside
resorts, ski slopes, ice rinks, toboggan runs attract tourists. Also close
to France and Germany, good snow but also sunny.



H.E.P and Industry
Steep slopes, high precipitation and melting of glaciers produce fast
flowing rivers. Narrow valleys are easy to dam.…

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