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Sy3 CRIME- Functionalist subcultural

Merton_ strain theory

Goals & means- goals- something which culture encourages you to achieve (monetary success)

Means- the socially acceptable way of achieving that goal

Strain ­ the disparity between the goal and the means.

MERITOCRACY____ the American dream___ goal- success__ means- hard work

Deviant adaptions…

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Cohen criticises Merton ­ Merton ignores group crime. & crimes without monetary gain.

Status frustration ­ when someone can not achieve a status in a traditional way they become

Alternative status hierarchy ­ reject mainstream norms and values; achieve status in a delinquent

Offers an explanation of…

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Retreatist subcultures

Those who fail in legitimate and illegitimate opportunities, so turn to drug use.

South- mix disorganized crime with mafia style crime ­ dealer could be classed as Retreatist (Cloward
and Ohlin do not accept that someone can fall into more than one category)

Miller ­ not everyone has…

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Durkhiem ­ crime is inevitable

Maintains boundaries in society- unites people against the `wrongdoers'

Reinforces the norms and values of the law abiding citizen

Courtroom publically makes examples of criminals and stigmatises

Inspires change ­ laws passed in society from `illegal behaviour'


Shows the parts of society that…

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Chambliss ­ 80-90% of the laws made are to protect private property.. rulling class protecting their

Snider ­ argues that it is unlikely for laws to get past that regulate business activity or threaten profit.


Not all working class commit crime

Criminal justice system does sometime act against…

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Secondary deviance ­ a deviant act being labelled.. leading to further deviance. Being caught and
publically labelled creates the master status. Ways of coping: accept the label, self fulfilling prophecy.

Stan Cohen: mods and rockers. Folk devils- mods and rockers, mortal enmies, stigmatized as bad.

Moral panics- identification of a…

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Left realism

Lea & Young- relative deprivation

Crime is due to the high standards of living and the limited opportunities to achieve this.


Marginalisation- people being pushed to the edge of society.

Tackling crime- young- rehabilitation and avoidance of crime over harsh punishment.

o Improve leisure facilities for the…

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