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Sy3 CRIME- Functionalist subcultural




Merton_ strain theory

Goals & means- goals- something which culture encourages you to achieve (monetary success)

Means- the socially acceptable way of achieving that goal

Strain ­ the disparity between the goal and the means.

MERITOCRACY____ the American dream___ goal- success__ means- hard work

Deviant adaptions…

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Cohen criticises Merton ­ Merton ignores group crime. & crimes without monetary gain.

Status frustration ­ when someone can not achieve a status in a traditional way they become
frustrated...

Alternative status hierarchy ­ reject mainstream norms and values; achieve status in a delinquent
subculture.

Advantages
Offers an explanation of…

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Retreatist subcultures

Those who fail in legitimate and illegitimate opportunities, so turn to drug use.

South- mix disorganized crime with mafia style crime ­ dealer could be classed as Retreatist (Cloward
and Ohlin do not accept that someone can fall into more than one category)

Miller ­ not everyone has…

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Durkhiem ­ crime is inevitable

Maintains boundaries in society- unites people against the `wrongdoers'

Reinforces the norms and values of the law abiding citizen

Courtroom publically makes examples of criminals and stigmatises
them

Inspires change ­ laws passed in society from `illegal behaviour'

Cohen

Shows the parts of society that…

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Chambliss ­ 80-90% of the laws made are to protect private property.. rulling class protecting their
interests.

Snider ­ argues that it is unlikely for laws to get past that regulate business activity or threaten profit.

Evaluation

Not all working class commit crime

Criminal justice system does sometime act against…

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Secondary deviance ­ a deviant act being labelled.. leading to further deviance. Being caught and
publically labelled creates the master status. Ways of coping: accept the label, self fulfilling prophecy.

Stan Cohen: mods and rockers. Folk devils- mods and rockers, mortal enmies, stigmatized as bad.

Moral panics- identification of a…

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Left realism

Lea & Young- relative deprivation

Crime is due to the high standards of living and the limited opportunities to achieve this.

Subculture

Marginalisation- people being pushed to the edge of society.

Tackling crime- young- rehabilitation and avoidance of crime over harsh punishment.

o Improve leisure facilities for the…

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