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Before the 19th century operations were horrific procedures, and most patients died
from post-operative shock, infection, or loss of blood. In some London hospitals the death
rate after operations was over 80 per cent.
The 19th-century up-turn in surgery actually pre-dated anaesthetics and antiseptics. Many
new ideas were trialled in…
For blood loss - blood transfusions
1901: Karl Landsteiner (Austria) - discovered blood groups. Transfusions had been
tried before but usually killed the patient because of clotting. Matching blood
groups stopped this happening.
1913: Richard Lewisohn discovered that sodium citratestopped blood
clotting during an operation.
1938: The National Blood Transfusion…
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