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SURGERY AND ANATOMY FACTORS ACROSS TIME

Prehistory:
Religion - they believed in natural and supernatural causes. Natural eg setting broken bones in clay,
supernatural eg trephining to release evil spirits.

Ancient Egypt:
Technology - new metal tools made surgery more successful.
Religion/Dissection - embalming for the afterlife gave them knowledge…

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19th Century:
Science and Technology - Rontgen invents X-Ray in 1895. Simpson developed chloroform, first
effective anaesthetic (after laughing gas and ether), and Semmelweis made washing hands
compulsory in maternity wards. Lister developed carbolic spray to limit infection. Halsted moved
towards aseptic surgery by introducing caps, gloves, masks and gowns.…

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