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UNIT 3 ­ topic 4 ­ SuperPower Geographies

A superpower is `the capacity to Project dominating power and influence anywhere in the world,
sometimes in more than one region of the globe at a time'
Hegemon is a leader, it has a supreme power upon others
How does a country…

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Strong cultural influence over other nations
Timeline of superpowers
1850-1945 United Kingdom
1945 ­ 1990 USA and USSR
1990 ­ Present USA
Emerging 21st century superpowers Brazil, India, Russia and China
Capitalism is the system by which land, labour and capital are owned privately and are used to
generate profit…

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1. Modernisation theory: Rostow model 1960

(1.Traditional society 2. Preconditions to
take off 3. Take off 4. Drive to maturity 5. High mass consumption)
2. Dependency theory: A. Frank

3. Neo-colonialism a form of indirect control over developing countries, most of them
former colonies: AID, Trade, Debt
International Financial Organisations…

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Formed in 1944 to stabilise currencies after the Depression of the 1930s devastation by
the second world war
44 rich countries initially joined but now has 185 members
Timeline of changing superpowers

Timescale Superpower(s) Comment
1800-1918 British Empire The UK is the dominant global
power, at one point
controlling 25%…

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Nuclear weapons: give countries power because they represent the ultimate threat. The
USA, Russia, China, France and the UK all possess them. These countries are recognised as
nuclear states under the Treaty of Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Pakistan, India,
Israel and North Korea are not signatories to the Treaty but…

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Theories explaining superpower status:

Theory, author & date Explanation Criticisms
Lib The take-off model Economic development is Many countries
era (W.W. Rostow, 1960) a linear, five stage borrowed heavily
l process and invested the
Countries `take-off' and money into projects
develop when to meet Rostow's
pre-conditions are met, pre-conditions, yet…

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develop and gain power,
showing that wealth and
power were fluid not

India and China are both emerging powers. Importantly neither country was allied to the Cold War
superpowers, and they have chosen to develop in their own way.
Both countries largely avoided dependency by developing internally and shunning…

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The brain-drain of with the developing
skilled workers to the world
developed world

Neo-colonialism falls into the Marxist / Structuralist mould of economic theory. Critics point out a
few factors missing:
Many developing countries have suffered long-term war and conflict which have
prevented investment and development
Many NICs and RICs…

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162 Number of world's 500 170
largest TNCs

G8 (USA, UK, France, Germany, Japan, Canada, Russia and Italy) summit meetings are ultimate
international organisation because the leaders at each meeting represent:
65% of global wealth
95% of global nuclear weapons
75% of global military spending
Interestingly the G8 nations only…

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decided to expand Western. China has hugely developed the industrial sector, producing and
selling goods for transnational cooperation's. They have more exports than they have imports
meaning that there is more budget for expansion
China has nowadays 16 of the 20 most polluted cities in the world and this was…


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