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Early periodic patterns (regularly repeating
variations) in the properties of elements in order of
their relative atomic masses. The modern periodic
tables are based on the elements in order of their
atomic numbers.
A group in the periodic table contains elements with
the same outer-shell electronic configuration but
very different…

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electron configurations, atomic radii, boiling points,
melting points and electrical conductivities.
The main influences on ionization energies and
atomic radii are: the size of the positive nuclear
charge; the distance of the electron from the
nucleus; the shielding effect on outer electrons by
electrons in filled inner shells.
Ionization energies…

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molecular. Group 0 elements consist of individual
Successive ionization energy data of an element may
be interpreted in terms of the position of the
element within the periodic table.
Data on electronic configurations, atomic radii,
electrical conductivity, melting points and boiling
points may be interpreted to demonstrate

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Metal chlorides have giant ionic lattice structures
and ionic bonding. They are neutral with a pH value
in aqueous solution of 7 (or slightly higher).
Non-metal chlorides have simple molecular
structures with covalent bonding. They are acidic
with a pH value in aqueous solution of around 2.
Sodium and magnesium…


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