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Crime and deviance perspectives

Functionalism
Argue that crime and deviance are useful and necessary, it has a function in
society.
Crime and deviance reinforces the consensus of values, norms and behaviour
of the majority of the nondeviant population.
Durkheim (1897)
deviancy allows for social change to occur.
Argues that all…

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4. Retreatism, this is where an individual gives up on the 'American Dream' and
turns to alcohol and drugs. This is a deviant and a criminal response.
5. Rebellion, this is an attempt to replace the 'American Dream' with other
norms and values. This is also a criminal response.
Criticisms…

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reasons. The working class are not passive victims of capitalism and make their
own choices on how to react.
Hall et al, argues that the ruling class are normally able to rule the subordinate
classes through hegemony.
Gilroy argued that ethnic minority crime can be seen as a form of…

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Left realism
Lea and Young (1984) criticised Marxists for overlooking the reality of crime.
They argue that they put forward a realistic view of crime. They also claim that
street crime is constantly growing and is the sort of crime that most people are
afraid of.
Kinsey, Lea and Young…

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criminal behaviour.
Right realists argue that police need to adopt a zero tolerance to crime. They
also say that minor crimes such as littering need to be stamped on hard so that
the benefits of committing crime no longer outweigh the costs.
Right realists also argue that tolerating one broken…

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who don't share these goals.
Feminism
Frances Heidensohn have criticised male dominated criminology ('malestream
criminology') for ignoring the victimisation of women in studies and statistics
on crime.
British Crime Survey data indicates that women suffer a great deal more from
domestic violence than men do.
Feminists claim there are a…

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