summary of research methods part 2

notes on reserch methods topic part 2

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Summary of research methods part 2
Investigation design- aims and hypotheses
Hypothesis- a clear and precise statement of the expected effect of the
operationalised IV upon the operationalised DV
Aim- a general statement about what the researchers intend to find out in
an experiment e.g. the aim of this study was to investigate invasion of
personal space would affect physiological arousal
Alternative or Null hypothesis
On tailed (directional) Two tailed hypotheses Null hypothesis
The IV will not affect
The IV will affect the The IV will affect the the DV
DV and we know how it DV but we don't know
will affect it how
E.g. there will be a E.g. there will be a E.g. there will be no
significant difference in significant difference in significant difference in
the time taken for a man the time taken for a man the time taken for a man
to urinate between two to urinate between two to urinate between the
close conditions, close conditions, close invasion two conditions, close
invasion and distant and distant invasion of invasion and distant
invasion of personal personal space invasion of personal
space. The man will take space
longer to urinate in the
close invasion condition
Investigation design- experimental designs
design Independent Repeated Matched pairs
groups measures
Description There are Each participant Participants are
different takes part in both matched into pairs
participants in conditions. They on relevant
each condition. do not repeat the characteristics.
Each participant experiment One participant
does the from the pair does
experiment once the experiment in
one condition while
the other
participant from
the pair does the
experiment in the
same condition

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Problems Rise in individual Participants may It's very difficult
differences as be subject to to accurately
more participants order effects match people into
take part in the (practice or pairs in reality;
experiment.…read more

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Inter rater reliability Two people are A correlation analysis of
consistent in the recording can be
observations calculated
Internal reliability The extent to which a Use the split half
questionnaire technique and check to
consistently measure the see if the scores from
same features both halves are similar
Investigation design- variables, demand characteristics and investigator effects
Operationalise: to write the variables in a clear and testable way
IV: this is the variable that is changed directly by the experimenter of
nature in the experiment. E.g.…read more

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Opportunit Mostly used by Easiest to do It tends to be biased
y psychology students. allowing larger due to the small
Consists of taking the possibly more groups so therefore it
sample from the representative lacks population
people who are samples validity and therefore
available at the time is unable to generalise
the study is carried the results to the
out and fit the population
volunteer Consists of Easy to collect a The sample will be
participants becoming large sample.…read more


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