Slides in this set
Nomenclature and Isomerism
· The study of the compound of carbon is
called organic chemistry.
· Groups of carbon compounds with the
same functional group are called
· Organic compounds are named according
to their longest carbon chain.
Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6
Prefix Meth- Eth- Pro- But- Pent- Hex-…read more
Homologous Series General Formula Name Functional group
Alkanes CnH 2n+2 -ane C H
Alkenes CnH2n -ene C=C
Haloalkanes chloro -, bromo- etc Cl or Br
Alcohols CnH2n+1 OH -ol OH
Aldehyde -al O
Ketones -one C=O
Carboxylic Acids CnH 2nCO2H -oic O
Esters -oate O
· Both of the following have four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms they
are called isomers
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH CH3
·The number 2 indicates that the methyl group is attached to the second carbon.
·Carbons are always number so that the lowest numbers appear in the name.
·This type of isomerism is called structural isomerism
·Positional isomers have functional groups at different positions along the chain
·Functional group isomers have different functional groups but have the same
molecular formulae, such as acids and esters…read more