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· Nomenclature and Isomerism
· Petroleum and Alkanes
· Alkenes and Epoxyethane
· Haloalkanes
· Alcohols…read more

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Nomenclature and Isomerism
· The study of the compound of carbon is
called organic chemistry.
· Groups of carbon compounds with the
same functional group are called
homologous series
· Organic compounds are named according
to their longest carbon chain.
Number of 1 2 3 4 5 6
C atoms
Prefix Meth- Eth- Pro- But- Pent- Hex-…read more

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Homologous Series General Formula Name Functional group
Alkanes CnH 2n+2 -ane C ­H
Alkenes CnH2n -ene C=C
Haloalkanes chloro -, bromo- etc ­Cl or ­Br
Alcohols CnH2n+1 OH -ol ­OH
Aldehyde -al O
Ketones -one C=O
Carboxylic Acids CnH 2nCO2H -oic O
Esters -oate O
O­C…read more

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· Both of the following have four carbon atoms and ten hydrogen atoms they
are called isomers
CH3 ­CH2 ­CH2 ­CH3 CH3 ­CH ­CH3
Butane 2-Methyl
·The number 2 indicates that the methyl group is attached to the second carbon.
·Carbons are always number so that the lowest numbers appear in the name.
·This type of isomerism is called structural isomerism
·Positional isomers have functional groups at different positions along the chain
·Functional group isomers have different functional groups but have the same
molecular formulae, such as acids and esters…read more

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Petroleum and Alkanes
· Petroleum
· Combustion
· Pollution…read more

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