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- Functionalists see education as transmitting society's norms and values. For example
through respecting and following rules and standards of the school the child learns to respect
the rules and standards of the wider society. Parts of society work together for the benefit…

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Ignores inequalities in power.
Rather than passing on society' s values it is claimed that it is the
dominant/ruling class' ideologies/values that are passed on.

Feminists argue that it is patriarchal values that are passed on.
There are many elite jobs where ascribed status characteristics have an

History teaching…

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In modern societies education has replaced the church as the main agency for
ideological control (getting people to behave in a desired way by convincing them that

it is in their interests to behave in that way).

Also known as Ideological state apparatus (ISA)
Main aim of…

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Employees have a lack of control at work.
Employees must follow their bosses orders.
Workers are motivated by external rewards such as pay and receive little satisfaction
from day to day work.

Social inequality

Education legitimates social inequality by broadcasting the myth that it offers
everybody an equal chance.

Page 5

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`he' `his' `him' `man' were typically used when referring to a person; this tended to downgrade
women and make them invisible within the curriculum.
Gendered roles:
School textbooks tend to present men and women in traditional gender roles. Women =
housewife/mother, male = breadwinner
This was particularly evident in reading…

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Cultural deprivation
Cultural deprivation theory is the idea that people from poor families fail in education because of
supposed deficiencies in their home and family background. Therefore their families do not
value education or educational achievement.
Cultural explanations for educational achievement:
-parents attitudes to and interest in education
-amount of…

Page 7

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- Sociologists have noted a complicated and changing relationship between gender and
- Historically, boys outperform girls- but, over the past three decades, girls have become
higher attainers.
- This rise might be driven by a range of broader social changes- including legal and policy
reforms, changing expectations held…


Zoe ray



Zoe ray



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