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IMMANUEL KANT
1724 - 1804
· Impiricist
· We can only gain knowledge through sensory experience.
· God beyond bounds of senses, wouldn't accept that the
knowledge we do have can be applied to questions the
transcend our experiences.
· Therefore, impossible to know what God created or of God
himself.…read more

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BERTRAND RUSSEL
1872 - 1970
· `Philosophical logic' ­ key philosophical questions re-worded
in mathematical terms.
· Everyday language can be extremely misleading.
· Every word stands for something, and people use them
without knowing what they stand for.
· `Fallacy of composition' ­ falsely ascribing the properties of
the parts of a whole, to the whole.
· Eg. Objects within the universe were created. Therefore, the
universe was created.…read more

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AQUINAS'S FIRST WAY
MOTION
1. Everything in the world is moving or changing from
potentiality to actuality
2. Nothing can move or change by itself
3. There cannot be an infinite regress of things moving or
changing other things
4. Therefore, there must be a first(prime) mover (changer)
which in itself is unmoved.
5. This unmoved mover we call `God'.…read more

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AQUINAS'S SECOND WAY
CAUSE
1. Everything in the world has a cause
2. Nothing is the cause of itself as this would be illogical
3. There cannot be an infinite regress of causes
4. Therefore, there has to be a first cause which in itself is
uncaused to start the chain of causes.
5. This first cause we call `God'.…read more

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AQUINAS'S THIRD CAUSE
CONTINGENCY
1. Everything in the world is contingent
2. Given infinite time, there must have been a time when all
contigent things did not exist
3. Nothing can come from nothing yet things exist now.
4. Therefore there must have been a being outside time and
space to bring things into existence
5. This being must in itself have necessary existence
6. This being with necessary existence we call `God'.…read more

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