summary of cognitive part 1

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Summary of cognitive part 1
Short term memory
Description Evaluation
Duration About 18 seconds. Lacks ecological
Peterson and validity- nonsense
Peterson-nonsense trigrams are meaningless.
trigrams. Distraction In real life we are likely
task to prevent rehearsal. to remember information
Interval between for longer if it's
presentation and recall important to us
gets longer in 3 second
Capacity 7 +/- 2 chunks, George lacks ecological
miller presented validity- the letters are
participants with an ever meaningless, in real life
lengthening list of we are more likely to
letters. Most remember information if
participants can recall it is important to us
immediately between 5 other research is
and 7 letters contradictory- Simon
suggests the size of
chunk affects the
capacity, and the speed
of language also affects
Encoding Acoustic. Conrad lacks ecological
presented participants validity- the letters are
with acoustically similar meaningless, in real life
letters and acoustically we are more likely to
dissimilar letters. remember information if
Participants make more it is important to us
mistakes in the other research is
acoustically similar contradictory-
condition (get confused Brandimonte prevents
and replace one letter acoustic encoding "la, la,
with a similar sounding la..." therefore some
letter) encoding must be visual
Long term memory
Description Evaluation
Duration Approximately a High ecological
lifetime- harry Bahrick validity- the faces were

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Recall so the results show how
dropped significantly memory does change over
over the 47 years, time in real life.
recognition of names to extraneous variables
faces didn't drop as much. present- the repeated
Suggests retrieval failure measures design may have
main reason for artificially raised the
forgetting in old age.…read more

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Elaborative rehearsal moves role of attention- for
it into the long term memory. example the selective
Retrieval brings information attention demonstrations
back into the STM. (basketball and gorilla)
Information can only be lost Flashbulb memories-
through the STM these emotional, personally
relevant memories don't
need rehearsal to get into
LTM.…read more

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Doesn't explain musical
memory- Bertz found that
we can do two tasks which
should occupy the
phonological loop, e.g.
talking and listening to
classical music. So either
model is wrong or there is a
third system just for
musical information
No link to LTM (in the
original model) - the
original model only
described STM. More
recent amendments have
included a episodic buffer
showing how information
can be moved from working
memory to LTM
The cognitive interview
1. Reinstate the context.…read more


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