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Chemistry Unit C1a
The effects of extraction

Digging out rocks leave big holes ­ quarries. Limestone is often found in scenic areas such as the peak

What are the advantages/disadvantages of quarrying?

Provide local employment.
Provides us with limestone which is used for building materials.

However quarrying:

Reduces tourism-people…

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Atoms have a small central nucleus. Orbiting this nucleus are the tiny electrons. It is the
moving electrons that give atoms their shape.

When a chemical reaction takes place between atoms, electrons may move from one atom
to another or be shared between atoms.

When metals and non-metals combine…

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Iron is extracted from its ore by the Blast furnace. When the reaction is complete it
produces Cast iron which is 96% pure iron and 4% carbon & other impurities. Nowadays it is
too brittle for most uses.


In a pure metal atoms are stacked up the same. They…

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Future Fuels: Oil will eventually run out, Hydrogen is being developed for use with buses.
When Hydrogen burns it produces water so therefore it is completely pollution free.

Hydrogen + Oxygen Water + Energy

Advantages and Disadvantages for using ethanol as fuel for cars.


Clean, Renewable
Halves or cuts…

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element to fill the missing gaps. All Alkenes have double bonds and are unsaturated

Alkanes No. Of Carbons Alkenes

Methane 1 Methene
Ethane 2 Ethene
Propane 3 Propene
Butane 4 Butene
Pentane (CnH2+2) 5 Pentene (CnH2x)

Ethene has many uses and can be made into a range of things…

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Smart Polymers are polymers specifically designed for certain tasks, for example shape
memory polymers, which under heat can be stretched and when cooled they will stick in
their new shape. The polymer can then return back to it original shape after it is heated again.

Extracting Oil from Plants/Oils (Continued)…

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An emulsion is a mixture of tiny droplets of oil in water or water in oil. They do not mix, and
if you let them stand they will separate. Emulsions are thicker than water.

Emulsifiers prevent these foods separating out. For example Egg yolk prevents oil and
vinegar from…


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