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All bonding involves electrostatic attractive
In ionic bonding, the attractive forces are
between oppositely charged ions.
In a covalent bond (one electron from each
atom), or a dative covalent bond (both electrons
from one atom), the forces are between two
atomic nuclei and pairs of electrons situated
Ionic and covalent bonds may be seen as
extremes. Between the two, there is a gradual
transition from one extreme to the other.
In metallic bonding, the forces are between
delocalised electrons and positive ions.
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Intermolecular attractive forces also involve
Intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds,
dipole-dipole and instantaneous dipole-induced
dipole forces) are much weaker than ionic,
covalent or metallic bonding forces.
Dot and cross diagrams enable ionic and
covalent bonds to be described. Use of these
diagrams with electron-pair repulsion theory
enables molecular shapes to be predicted.
In molecules, atomic orbitals combine to
produce and molecular orbitals.
Physical properties and structures of elements
and compounds may be explained in terms of
the kinetic theory and bonding.…read more