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All bonding involves electrostatic attractive
forces

In ionic bonding, the attractive forces are
between oppositely charged ions.

In a covalent bond (one electron from each
atom), or a dative covalent bond (both electrons
from one atom), the forces are between two
atomic nuclei and pairs of electrons situated
between them.…

Page 2

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Intermolecular attractive forces also involve
electrostatic forces.

Intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonds,
dipole-dipole and instantaneous dipole-induced
dipole forces) are much weaker than ionic,
covalent or metallic bonding forces.


Dot and cross diagrams enable ionic and
covalent bonds to be described. Use of these
diagrams with electron-pair repulsion theory
enables molecular shapes…

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