Summary of ALL A2 OCR Psychology studies

Covers ALL Health & Clinical and Forensic studies.

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  • Created by: Poppy
  • Created on: 03-04-13 14:25
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1 Farrington ­ offending families 2 Sutherland ­ differential
Longitudinal association
Upbringing Criminal behaviour is learned
Nature vs nurture Interaction with others
Intergenerational transmission Favourable or unfavourable definitions
Prospective longitudinal study of the law
Persistors and desistors Repeated contact with criminal activity
Increasing age, increasing life success Situation is defined as appropriate for
committing a crime
Definitions are acquired through past
3 Peterborough Youth Study 4 Yochelson and Samenow
Crosssectional 255 males including those NGRI
2000 Year 10 Interviews over 16 years
Interview and data collection 52 thinking patterns
Explanatory factors Subject attrition
Propensityinduced Psychodynamic approach
Lifestyledependent Criminals think differently
Situationally limited
5 Kohlberg 6 Gudjhonsson and Singh
58 boys from Chicago Northern Ireland
Twohour interview with moral Internal/external attribution
dilemmas Sex offenders/property offenders
Heinz dilemma No difference except Northern Irish
Crosscultural feel less guilt over property offences
Three levels/six stages Irish more likely to make external
Criminals unlikely to progress past level attributions
7 Raine 8 Brunner et al.
Low resting heart rate Five males
Fearless temperament MAOA
Birth complications Case study
Lower activity in prefrontal lobes Serotonin metabolism
Poor parenting Reductionist/determinist
Drinking and smoking in pregnancy Confounding variables of mental
9 Daly and Wilson 10 Frowd
Males take more risks Internal and external features of a face
Evolutionary advantage Facial composites

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Mate selection Distractor faces/foils
Short time horizon Celebrities
Low life expectancy University personnel
Neighbourhoodspecific homicide rate Laboratory experiment
11 Loftus 12 Fisher
Laboratory experiment Field experiment
Weapon focus Dade County, Florida
Line or queue in a fast food outlet `Blind' observers
Cheque or gun Cognitive interview
Multiple choice questionnaire Recall more and more accurately
Slides of head and shoulders Real witnesses , real crimes, actual
13 Mann 14 Reid
Police as lie detectors Nine steps to interrogation
Real witnesses Assumed to be guilty from…read more

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Sample paid to take part Four conditions
Tape recording Juror memory
Massachusetts vs Caldwell Juror confidence
Ecological validity
21 Pickel 22 Castellow
Inadmissible evidence Attractiveness of the defendant and
Prior convictions witness
Credibility of the witness Mock trial
Mock trial 71 males 71 females getting extra
Judge gives reasons or not credit
Jury may choose to use it or may not Scale of 1 to 9 for how attractive
Sexual harassment case
Halo effect
23 Penrod and Cutler 24 Ross
Witness confidence Child as witness…read more

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­ rise of 40% `Supermax' prisons
Content analysis Situational explanations of behaviour
Remand prisoners at risk Drug offences and `War on Drugs'
Hanging most popular method Racial bias
Most often at night No lessons from Stanford prison
31 Mair and May 32 Sherman and Strang
Offenders on probation Restorative justice
Survey method using interviews Content analysis starting with internet
Subject attrition search
88% felt probation was useful Achieved reductions in reoffending for
Biased sample? violent and property crimes (only)
One third go on to reoffend…read more

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Health Belief Model ­ 2 Selfefficacy ­ Bandura
Becker/Rosenstock Outcome expectancy/Efficacy
Perceived threat expectation
(seriousness/susceptibility) Vicarious experience
Costs/benefits analysis Verbal persuasion
Cues to action ­ internal/external Emotional arousal
Demographic variables ­ gender, Cognitive appraisal
culture etc.…read more

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Less adherence if sideeffects of drugs Placebo group
Treatment must not reduce wellbeing Psychometric tests mirrored physical
9 Improving adherence ­ Watt et al. 10 Work as a cause of stress
Operant conditioning ­ reinforcement Johansson ­ Swedish sawmill
37 Children with asthma aged 1.…read more

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Less headaches/medication in
17 A cognitive method of managing 18 A social method of managing
stress stress
Stress Inoculation Therapy ­ Social support ­ Wexler ­ Morrison
Michenbaum Women with breast cancer
Tested on college students with exam Prospective study of survival rates
stress Measured family, friend, work support
Fear survey assessed fear Higher survival in married
Groups had desensitisation and Higher survival in good social support
cognitive modification
Cognitive method showing most
19 Behaviourist treatments 20 Cognitive treatments ­ Beck
McGrath ­…read more

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Cognitive distortions in patients with Watson and Raynor ­ classical
depression conditioning
Interviews with reports of patients' Little Albert
thoughts Labinduced fear of rats
Certain themes appeared in the Generalised to other objects
patients: low selfesteem, selfblame, Lasted over time
responsibilities, desire to escape, anxiety Didn't test if could reverse learning
of personal danger
Supported by own research
27 Biological treatments ­ Karp and 28 Characteristics of affective
Frank disorders
Compare drug treatment and nondrug DSMIV
treatments Persistent unreasonable fear
A review article Exposure provokes…read more

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Explanation of a psychotic 34 Treatments of an affective
disorders disorder
Biological ­ Gottesman and Shields Biological ­ Karp and Frank
Twin and family studies of Drug therapy as effective on own as
schizophrenia combined
Cognitive ­ Maher Cognitive ­ Ellis
Delusional thinking and perceptual Coping with depression course
disorder Behaviourist ­ Lewinsohn, rewarding
Behavioural ­ Liberman reinforces changes in negative behaviour
Assessment of social skills
35 Treatment of an anxiety disorder 36 Treatment of a psychotic
Biological ­ Leibowitz, phenelzine disorder
effective in treating…read more


Jessica Cluley

very thorough! Thanks! 

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