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Summary of Religious differences in 1603
Very hierarchical structure. Headed by the Pope who lives in Vatican. Under the pope is the
Cardinals ~ Arch Bishops ~ Bishops ~ Priests.
Role of Ceremony
Very important to the Catholics, they believed that Priests inherited Christ's power to help
human souls. They exercised it in church ceremonies and the seven sacraments. Mass was
Latin so no one understood what was being said. They also believed in transubstantiation
this set about the idea that Christians could only reach God through the Catholic Church.
The Alter was at the East end of the church and closed off from laity to emphasis the
superiority of the Clergy by setting them apart. The statues of saints and Christ covered the
walls and were often worshipped in a form of "Venerating". In 1603 when James arrived 5%
of the population were Catholics, and only a small number of gentry were catholic. They
were very much in the minority.
Anglican (Church of England)
Again a very hierarchical structure. The head of the church was the monarch and the King or
Queen appointed the bishops. The system of bishops is called the episcopacy. The bishops
saw ruling over the church as being a very half and half in power, while the monarch saw
themselves as the supreme governor over the church.
Role of Ceremony
There were only two sacraments, Holy Communion and Baptism. They did not believe in
transubstantiation. The minister would be closer physically to the laity and would read the
Book of common prayer which was in English and was made in the Elizabeth Settlement in
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Most ministers were influenced by Calvinism and supported the predestination idea. But
rejected the church organisation associated with Calvinism. Salvation came through faith
and the Study of the Bible.
By 1603 the Elizabethan church was pretty firmly established. Designed to a bridge between
Extreme Protestant and Catholics.…read more