Summary of Organic Reactions and conditions

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  • Created on: 19-02-16 16:39
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Summary of organic reactions
Aldehydes and Ketones
Aldehyde Carboxylic acid
Oxidation
Reagents: Potassium dichromate in conc sulphuric acid
Conditions: Warm under reflux
observation: Orange to green
To distinguish between aldehydes and ketones:
Add Fehling's solution and heat
Ketones: Blue solution to brick red precipitate
Aldehydes: No visible change
Add Tollens' reagent and heat
Ketones: colourless solution to silver mirror
Aldehydes: No visible change
Carbonyl Alcohol
Reduction
Reagents: NaBH4 (aq)
Conditions: room temperature
Nucleophillic addition
Carbonyl Hydroxynitrile
Add CN-
Reagents: NaCN and HCl (aq)
Conditions: room temperature
Nucleophillic addition
Carboxylic Acids and their Salts
Carboxylic acids with Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate
Reagent: NaH CO
3
Conditions: room temperature
Products: Sodium salt, Water, CO2
Observation: Effervescence
Esterification
Reagents: Any alcohol and Carboxylic acid Concentrated sulphuric acid catalyst
Esters
Acid hydrolysis
Reagents: Concentrated H SO
2 4
Conditions: Heat under reflux
Equilibrium
Ester + Water Acid + Alcohol
Base hydrolysis
Reagent: NaOH (aq)
Conditions: Heat under reflux
Takes the reaction further
Acid + Alcohol Salt + Water
Acyl Chlorides and Acid Anhydrides
Acylation using acyl chlorides
With water (to make carboxlyic acids )
With ammonia (to make amides )
With alcohols (to make esters)
With primary amines (to make N-substituted amides)
Room temperature with Obsv: White misty fumes (HCl)
Acylation using Acid Anhydrides
With water (to make
carboxylic acids )
With ammonia (to make
amides )
With alcohols (to make
esters)
With primary amines (to make
N-substituted amides)
Room temperature
Amines
Haloalkane Primary amine
Reagents: Haloalkanes and excess ammonia

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Summary of organic reactions
Haloalkane Secondary amine
Reagents: Haloalkane and primary amine
Haloalkane Tertiary amine
Reagents: Haloalkane and secondary amine
Haloalkane Quarternary ammonium salt
Reagents: Haloalkane and secondary amine
Nucleophillic Substitution
Heat
Haloalkane Nitrile
-
CN Ethanolic
Haloalkane
Nucleophillic sub.…read more

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