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Succession Notes
What is succession? [slide1]
Bare rock can sometimes arise through the formation of a completely new island.
Lichens are found on growing on roof tiles, gravestones and are usually the first
organism to colonise on bare ground. They create a community that changes over time,
in a process known as succession.
Primary Succession [slide 2]
Pioneer Species
Usually get to the new piece of land by windblown spores. They start to break up the
rock and organic matter from dead plants builds up too which makes it suitable for other
plants. The development of soil that holds water can allow small seeds of shallow rooted
plants to establish. As conditions improve seeds of larger plants and trees appear, until
Climax community is reached. It is usually the most abundant species in the
area which is why number of plants may increase but biodiversity decreases in
Secondary Succession [slide 3]
The ground had been colonised before but has been cleared. If left untouched the
ground will return to woodland like the lost Inca cities in the South American rainforest.
Seeds will be in the ground already (seed bank) or be taking in by wind or animals.
An example of a plant that takes advantage of no competition is the Groundsel
(Senecio vulgaris). The adaptions of this plant are wind dispersal of seeds, rapid
growth, short life cycle and an abundant seed production.
Deflected Succession [slide 4]
Sheep grazing stops succession from happening.
Measuring Succession [slide 5]
The definition of abundance is = the number of organisms in an area.
Hydrosere [slide 8]

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Submerged plants ­ sediments are deposited into the water and gradually the depth of
the lake will decrease allowing rooted, submerged plants to such as pondweed to grow.
Swamp ­ The water may be too shallow to support fully submerged plants. Instead
emergent plants grow partly in and out the water.
Marsh Swamp plants which are adapted to grow in partially submerged conditions, will
gradually die out as the marsh floor progressively rises above the water level.…read more

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Most questions will have either transect, quadrat, abundance and distribution or change
in environment in the wording. This means that you need to answer about succession.
Links to other things
Abiotic and biotic factors (affect distribution and abundance)
Photosynthesis (Plant succession)
Click on Watch, then at the top click on Science, then Biology
Variation in Species Video
Video on Bacteria
Photosynthesis Video
Light reactions and Photophosphorylation Video
Calvin Cycle video
Inflammatory Response
http://www.khanacademy.…read more

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