Biology Unit 4


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Biology Unit 4
Revision Notes
Topic 5: On the wild side
13. Describe the concept of succession to a climax
Succession - The colonisation of an area by communities of plants and animals which are eventually
replaced by other, more varied communities.
Primary Succession
A larger variety of animals and plants can be supported
Larger plants and simplex animals and be supported
More water and nutrients are retained in the soil
Grass and ferns form more humus when they die and decompose
Grass and ferns can begin to grow
The grains and organic humus form soil
Rock surface is broken into grains and organic material is trapped and broken down from humus
Opportunist/Pioneer species of plants such as lichens, algae and mosses penetrate the surface
An empty baron inorganic surface (e.g. bare rock or a sand dune)
Text Book: p. 20 - 23

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Biology Unit 4
Revision Notes
Climax community ­ occurs where the biodiversity and range of species are generally constant. It is
self-sustaining and usually the most productive group of organisms which that environment can
Secondary Succession
Secondary succession - the evolution of an ecosystem from existing soil that is clear of vegetation.…read more


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