SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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  • Created on: 07-06-16 20:43
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SUBSTANCE ABUSE KEY TERMS
· ADDICTION-A compulsive behaviour where an individual is preoccupied with a drug and
maintaining its supply in order to gain pleasure. The user is likely to be both physically and
psychologically dependent on the drug.
· PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE-The body and brain have adapted to the presence of a drug so it's
needed for normal functioning. A drug can mimic natural transmitters, meaning the brain adjusts and
stops producing its own.
· PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE-When a person's life is focused on a drug to help them feel good
and cope. It involves a mental and emotional compulsion, where a person believes they need the
drug.
· WITHDRAWAL-The unpleasant physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person
abruptly stops taking a drug. These include, insomnia, seizures, anxiety and hallucinations.
· TOLERANCE-A state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a frequently used drug. This
means that the body adapts to the drug and so that more of the drug is needed to have the same
physical effects. SIEGAL did a study on rats to show that tolerance is psychological as well as
physiological. Rats were made addicted to heroin by being given infections of the drug, which was
increased in strength over 14 days. This created tolerance in the rats. After the 2 weeks, the rats
were injected with heroin at twice the dose they were used to. Some of the rats remained in their
existing environment but some were moved to a new one before the over dose. 32% of rats that
stated in their normal environment died, compared to 64% of rats that had been moved to an
unfamiliar environment died. If tolerance has a purely biological explanation, death rates should be
similar across both groups. However, it seems that while some tolerance is biological, environmental
cues stimulate higher levels of tolerance.

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBSTANCES
STIMULANTS DEPRESSANTS HALLUCINOGENS
Stimulants speed up the Depressants slow down the Hallucinogens disrupt
nervous system by nervous system by increasing communications between
increasing the activity of the effectiveness of GABA, a neurotransmitters,
dopamine, a neurotransmitter which particularly creating their
neurotransmitter involved in regulates neuron activity in effects by mimicking
reward and pleasure. the CNS, inhibiting the firing serotonin, a
Positive Effects: of neurones. neurotransmitters involved
- Increased alertness and Positive Effects:
in the regulation of mood.…read more

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TOBACCO AND NICOTINE
·Tobacco contains an addictive drug called nicotine, which is a mild
stimulant.
·However, it's effects do not last long with nicotine levels reduced
by half within 30 minutes.
·SCHACTER showed that heavy smokers smoke more when put
on low nicotine cigarettes than when on high nicotine cigarettes.
This demonstrates a smoker's need to maintain a certain level of
nicotine in their bloodstream, as more low nicotine cigarettes were
needed to do this.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF SA
HEREDITY FACTORS
Substance abuse can be seen to run in families. Both MZ and DZ twins have been studies to see if a characteristic is inherited,
evidence for it would be expected in both MZ twins as they share 100% of their genes.
· MCGUE-Many pairs of male MZ and DZ twins were interviewed about their alcohol use. The concordance rates found were: Male
MZ twins-77%, male DZ twins-54%.…read more

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BIOLOGICAL EXPLANATION OF SA
GENES
It is believed that certain individuals may inherit genes that mean they metabolise ethanol (alcohol) differently in
their body. Ethanol breaks down into acetaldehyde when in the body and this is what makes a person feel unwell
when drinking. If an individual has a slower metabolism, acetaldehyde will remain in the body for longer.…read more

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PERSONALITY EXPLANATION OF SA
· Some personality types seem to be more associated with substance abuse than others, for
example; impulsive, risk takers, low self esteem, and lack of ambition.
· Flory found it's linked with extroversion (confident, outgoing, easily bored)
· McAdams found that people with low conscientiousness (taking care) are at risk
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER (APD)
· People with it has characteristics such as; recklessness, egocentric, charming, manipulative.…read more

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FREUD EXPLANATION OF SA
Freud argued that those who abuse substances have strong dependency
need which can be traced back to early childhood. If parents fail to
satisfy their children's needs, the child will grow up to be overly reliant on
overs. This fixation occurs in the oral stage which can explain why
they're so over dependent on other as an adult. If others fail to provide
this comfort, substances may provide the substitute, creating
dependency.…read more

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TREATMENT: AVERSION THERAPY
Uses behavioural principles of classical conditioning . Alcoholics and smokers can be conditioned by pairing an abused
substance with something unpleasant. In most cases, the substance is paired with an emetic (a substance that causes
rapid nausea and vomiting). Eventually, the patient has a conditioned response where only alcohol/smoking is needed to
cause nausea.
· SMITH AND FRAWLEY-Investigated to find out the level of success in abstain from alcohol, after a year since they had
aversion therapy.…read more

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TREATMENT:COVERT SENSITISATION
(ADD ON TO AVERSION THERAPY)
Covert sensitisation refers to learning to abstain from a substance due to
being able to describe and imagine the deeply unpleasant effects that
occurred from the treatment. A patient is encouraged to imagine the
consequence of taking the substance and recall it whenever they are
tempted to use it.
· CAUTELA argued that for it to be really effective, the unpleasantness
needs to be associated with the intention to take the substance rather than
actually taking it.…read more

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TREATMENT:SELF MANAGEMENT-
STRATEGIES
Self management-strategies allow the person to take more responsibility and control over their treatment and recovery.
They normally involve cognitive, behavioural, and humanistic approaches and are commonly used in the UK for substance abuse.
These self management-strategies are based on theoretical models of behavioural change. These have been developed to
promote behaviour change in individuals. An example of this is the `stages of change model' out forward by PROCHASKA.…read more

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