Subject Overview - Key Points.

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Uses & Gratifications Theory (Blumler and Katz 1974)
Todorov's Theory
Preferred Readings (Hill and Morley)
Audience Effects *
Cultivation Theory*
Audience Theory
Using VALS
Reality TV
Shot Types
TV and The Rules
Genre - A method of grouping television programmes or other media texts according to a common set of
factors via conventions.
Narrative - How a story is told/how a plot unfolds before an audience.
Synergy - Where media texts and organisations operate in a way that provides promotional benefits to
both parties.
Image - A picture or gathering of signs that operates together to create meaning.
Text - A type of media.
Ambiguous - Can't Escape, This is good in advertising.
Active - When an audience is engaged with what they see or consume.
Passive - When a audience doesn't register to what they are seeing, they are a passive. They don't
really register.
Polysemic - That texts can be seen in many ways.
Connotation - The enigma's and related themes.
Mise-en-scene - The atmosphere, feelings, sound...
Closed Narrative - Self contained storyline.
Ideology - Values & beliefs conveyed in media texts. (Hill & Morley)
Binary Opposition (Levi Strauss Theory)- Direct or opposite to each other in every way.
Convention - a item or connotation that is related to a style via constant exposure to that media type.
Iconography - Familiar use of item or convention in that genre of media
Intertextuality - Relations/Reference to multiple media texts. (TGIF)

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Verisimilitude - Quality of simulation of reality.
When Analysing use:
Types Of Media:
TV - Public Service of Paid?
Radio - BBC vs Other
Video Games - Target?
Films - Types, Location, Budget
News Paper - Free, Paid, Broadsheet, Tabloid, Political Affiliations.
Music Video - Purpose, What to achieve? (Narrative, Montage, Intertextuality.)
Uses & Gratifications Theory (Blumler and Katz 1974)
Diversion - A form of release or example from the everyday.…read more

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Todorov's Theory
Equilibrium. Dis-Equilibrium. Return To Equilibrium. - This is todorov's theory; he basically said that
every moving image media text has this, many image texts do too.
Preferred Readings (Hill and Morley)
Dominant - Accepts the Programme
Negotiated - Party agrees
Oppositional - Completely disagrees and may interpret in a different way.
Audience Effects *
[Slightly Disregarded as Conspiracy]
See that the audience can be PASSIVE easily manipulated or victimised.
View the audience as a mass.
Direct influence on the actions of the audience.…read more

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Cultivation Theory*
The belief that media has a long term impact, numbing us to reality. This is known as
desensitization. It is argued that this can affect subconsciously what we think. It changed our
views and opinions by constant exposure.
Examples are CSI type programmes could produce killers or fear that crime rates are high.
Audience Theory
A Top management, Lawyers.…read more

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Other socio-economic or VAL groups may include...
Actualizers Fulfilled Achievers Experiencers
Believers Strivers Makers Strugglers
Trendies Egoists Puritans Innovators
Rebels Groupies Drifters Dropouts
Traditionalists Utopians Cynics Cowboys
These are all focusing on young VALS.
When grouping using VALS; acronyms are used:
DINKY - Dual Income, No Kids
YUPPIE - Young Urban Professional
GUPPIE - Green Upwardly-mobile , Urban Professional
SCRUMMY - School Run Mummy, Non working mum with school age kids.…read more

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A Genre can be used as a creative strategy in film; by producers to ensure audiences identification within
a film meaning that they try to predict the risk. Audiences like genre's as it helps they decide what texts to
Genres contain many elements that audiences want to stay the same. Sitcoms applies to this.
Ambiguous - Can't Escape, This is good in advertising.…read more

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Advertising creates conformity. Stereotypes are used in advertising along with the connotations of male and female
dominance. This is shown in both video texts of Virgin Atlantic and Lynx Excite . Both texts are moving image adverts
and disciplinary to rebellion and exercise a lot of negative representations of male and female counterparts.
The Conventions
25-30 Mins
Self contained narrative
Studio Based
Familiar location normally interior (domestic or workplace environments)
Limited locations
Conventional use of mise-en-scene
Todorov's equilibrium?
Circular narrative.…read more

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Low production values
Natural camera
Documentary style
When the character speaks into the camera
Driven by conflict
When Looking In The Current Media...…read more

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Infotainment shows - One Show
Lifestyle Shows - 10 Years Younger, DIY SOS
Social Experiment - Wife Swap, Come Dine With Me.
Reality Talent - BGT, X Factor
Reality Game Show - I'm A Celeb
Docu-Soap - Come Fly With Me, TOWIE
Most contemporary TV is formulated as hybrids, this means they have sections of many genres.
Repertoire Of Elements - Reality TV is not static. It has to evolve to keep fresh.…read more

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Free To Air:
ITV 1, 2, 3, 4
The BBC has to be unbiased but C4 can be biased as there is no TV licence paid to them.…read more


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