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Uses & Gratifications Theory (Blumler and Katz 1974)
Todorov's Theory
Preferred Readings (Hill and Morley)
Audience Effects *
Cultivation Theory*
Audience Theory
Using VALS
Reality TV
Shot Types
TV and The Rules


Genre - A method of grouping television programmes or other media…

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Verisimilitude - Quality of simulation of reality.

When Analysing use:


Types Of Media:
TV - Public Service of Paid?
Radio - BBC vs Other
Video Games - Target?
Films - Types, Location, Budget
News Paper - Free, Paid, Broadsheet, Tabloid, Political Affiliations.…

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Todorov's Theory

Equilibrium. Dis-Equilibrium. Return To Equilibrium. - This is todorov's theory; he basically said that
every moving image media text has this, many image texts do too.

Preferred Readings (Hill and Morley)

Dominant - Accepts the Programme
Negotiated - Party agrees
Oppositional - Completely disagrees and may interpret in…

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Cultivation Theory*

The belief that media has a long term impact, numbing us to reality. This is known as
desensitization. It is argued that this can affect subconsciously what we think. It changed our
views and opinions by constant exposure.
Examples are CSI type programmes could produce killers…

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Other socio-economic or VAL groups may include...

Actualizers Fulfilled Achievers Experiencers

Believers Strivers Makers Strugglers

Trendies Egoists Puritans Innovators

Rebels Groupies Drifters Dropouts

Traditionalists Utopians Cynics Cowboys

These are all focusing on young VALS.

When grouping using VALS; acronyms are used:

DINKY - Dual Income, No Kids
YUPPIE - Young…

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A Genre can be used as a creative strategy in film; by producers to ensure audiences identification within
a film meaning that they try to predict the risk. Audiences like genre's as it helps they decide what texts to

Genres contain many elements that audiences want to stay the…

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Advertising creates conformity. Stereotypes are used in advertising along with the connotations of male and female
dominance. This is shown in both video texts of Virgin Atlantic and Lynx Excite . Both texts are moving image adverts
and disciplinary to rebellion and exercise a lot of negative representations of male…

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Low production values
Natural camera
Documentary style

When the character speaks into the camera
Driven by conflict

When Looking In The Current Media...

Examples of Reality TV:

Big Brother
X Factor
The only way is essex
My Big Fat Gypsy Wedding
Educating Essex
Made In Chelsea
Im a…

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Infotainment shows - One Show
Lifestyle Shows - 10 Years Younger, DIY SOS
Social Experiment - Wife Swap, Come Dine With Me.
Reality Talent - BGT, X Factor
Reality Game Show - I'm A Celeb
Docu-Soap - Come Fly With Me, TOWIE

Most contemporary TV is formulated as hybrids, this…

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Free To Air:
ITV 1, 2, 3, 4

The BBC has to be unbiased but C4 can be biased as there is no TV licence paid to them.

BBC1 - One Show, Eastenders, BBC News, BBC Breakfast, Cash In The Attic
BBC2 - Antiques Road Show,…


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