Studies for Biological Rhythms and Sleep- A2 AQA Psychology

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Stephan and Zucker Damaged SCN of lab rats- eliminated normal eat drink
circadian rhythm
Zucker, boshes and Dark Damaged SCN in ground squirrels and eliminated
normal eat drink circadian rhythm
Rusak and Zucker Damaged SCN in male hamsters SCN and eliminated
circannual release of testosterone
Abraham, Gwinner and Van't hof Injections of melatonin produces sleep in sparrows
Binkley Chickens wake at dawn when melatonin levels fall
Siffre Absence of environmental zeitgebers, endogenous
pacemakers can still regulate biological rhythm
Aschoff and Weaver P's in a world war 2 bunker, circadian rhythm 24-25
hours- expectation of 29
Folkard P's followed a 24hour circadian rhythm even when
although the clock showed 24hours passed when 22
only passed
Decoursey Damaged SCN in chipmunks- removed sleep wake
circadian rhythm, died as hunted as they were awake
when they should have been asleep
Russell, Switz and Thompson Sweat from donor passed to recipient, allowed
menstrual cycles to synchronise
Dalton PMS led to an increase in accidents, suicide and crime
and decreased academic achievement
Czeisler, Moore-Ede and Coleman Utah chemical plant- introduced a forward shift
rotation of 21 days- less stress, fewer health and
sleeping problems and less stress.
Gordon Philadelphia police officers- 18 day forward shift
rotation- 30% reduction to sleeping on job, 40%
reduction on accidents on the job.
Phillips Permanent night shifts- allowed synchronisation
Solomon Night workers divorce rate of 60%
Knutsson Shift workers of 15 years 3 times more likely to
develop heart disease
Recht, Lew and Schwartz Baseball teams over 3 years. East to west won 44% of
their games. West to east won 37% of their games.
Sack Effects of jet lag decrease with age
Beaumont Injections of melatonin given at bed time 3 days
before travel and 5 days after arrival allow
synchronisation and decrease the effects of jet lag.
Dement and Kleitman Dreaming most recorded with REM sleep. NREM 20%
reported dreaming. Dreams in REM more vivid/intense
Allison and Cicchetti 39 animals species- prey sleep less than predator
Lesku Herbivores sleep less than carnivores
Lesku Brain mass positively correlates with REM
Sleep exposure index neg correlates with REM
Trophic position pos correlates with REM
BMR neg correlates with total sleep time and NREM
Zeplin and Rechtsaffen Smaller animals- higher metabolic rates- sleep more
than larger animals.

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Sassin Reversal of sleep cycles by 12 hours reversed the
release of GH- GH release controlled by SWS
Van Cauter Decline in GH in older age matches decline in SWS
Krueger Lack of SWS associated with reduced functioning of
the immune system
Rechtsaffen Kept rats awake by rotating a disk after 33 days these
rats died.…read more

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Wickens Injecting orexin into areas of the brain associated with
sleep, such as the locus coeruleus and raphe nuclei
increase REM…read more


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