Structure of The Internet

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The client and server are software processes. The
server waits for a request from the client. The
client initiates the communication, the server
responds. The server has to exist and be known
about before a client can successfully connect to
its services.
Is a set of agreed signals, codes and rules for
data exchange.
Protocol
Source Address
HTTPS: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol over Secure FTP: Application layer protocol that enables files A packet is a unit of communication in the 3 Parts Destination Address
Sockets Layer is a secure protocol developed by on one host to be copied to another host. An FTP The Client Server Model Packet Switching internet Payload
Netscape that encrypts and decrypts user page server and an FTP client have to be run, two ports
requests. It uses port 443. are used, 20 for data, 21 for commands. When a computer wants to send something like a
Used because it isn't practical to connect every
host directly to every other host. document to another, the document will be
Pop3 and SMTP: SImple Mail Transfer Protocol is broken down into chunks. The computer will
HTTP: Application level Protocol, Client sends Instead a few hosts connect to a router, which
used by e-mail clients to send e-mail. It is a generate a packet for every chunk made. Chunks are placed in the next available packet
request to server, server responds with a connects to other routers to form a network.
relatively simple text based protocol. Operated Routers
response message contain data such as HTML or The address of the sending computer is placed in
other files on port 25. POP3 is used to retrieve the mail by A router receives packets from a host or router, the source address of the packet.
the receiver then uses the destination IP address that they
Telnet: Is a text based protocol that can be used contain to pass on the packets, correctly The unique address of the receiving computer is
to manage a remote machine, read the HTML of a Application Level Protocols formatted, to another host or router. placed in the destination address part of each
webpage and send and retrieve e-mail packet.
Clients are assigned a temporary port number The World Wide Web is a system of Interlinked Each packet is then dispatched to the internet Each sent independently through a series of
called a Client Port number. Client Port Numbers hyper-text documents accessed via the internet through a router gateway. interconnected routers until they reach their
lie in the range 1024 to 4095 The WWW Accessed via a web browser destination.
Each router examines the destination address of
Client Port Numbers Began in 1989 a packet to determine what to do with it.
20: Ftp Server, file transfer data
110: Pop3 Server Server Process Port Numbers An Intranet An Intranet is a private computer network that
Port numbers uses internet protocols to share an organisations
23: Telnet Server
information or operations with its employees.
Handles the details of the networking Computing: The Structure Of the Internet Identifies a group of IP addresses, i.e. on a
application. It uses different protocols for
Domain Name network.
different applications.
Fully Qualified Domain Name Identifies a specific client IP on a network
Involves the transmission control protocol which
establishes a secure reliable connection between Application Layer Uniform resource identifier Represents the target of a hyperlink; specifies
two hosts. Deals with detecting errors, Uniform Resource Locator which server to access, the access method and
retransmitting packets and detecting the Transport layer the location on the server.
Registries and Registrars Uniform Resource Name
breaking of a connection.
Identifies a resource by name
Addresses the packets handed to to it from the
Network Layer Store registered domain names. These registries
transport layer with source and destination IP Registries
track the associations between Internet
addresses, then hands them to the link layer
Link addresses such as 196.100.11.4 and domain
Adds source and destination hardware addresses names
to packets that it receives from the network Registrars
layer, then dispatches the packets to the local Are responsible for registering Internet domains
TCP/IP Protocol Stack to people and organisations
cable.

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