Structure And Bonding Revision Sheet

Revision notes on Structure and Bonding for AS Chemistry.

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  • Created on: 30-10-07 12:55
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Katie Overington 10/10/2007
Structure and Bonding
Structure ­ no of ions in a molecule and how they are arranged in space
Bonding ­ the force of attraction holing them together
Changing States:
Melting point ­ temp at which a pure solid is in equilibrium with the pure liquid at
atmospheric pressure.
The standard molar enthalpy change of fusion energy required to turn 1 moles of
solid at its melting point to 1 moles of liquid at its melting point.
Ratio of metals to non metals 4:1
Metal structure is a crystalline lattice.
Metallic bonding: electrostatic attractions between metal cations
and their delcoalised electrons from neighbouring atoms.
Metals readily lose their mobile outer electrons delocalised.
Group 1 metals lose 1 electron
Group 2 metals lose 2 electrons etc
The greater the number of outer electrons, the stronger the bonding
The smaller the size of the atoms, the stronger the bonding
The higher the efficiency with which they are packed together, the stronger the
The lower the ionisation energy the more readily it releases for bonding.
Properties of metals
Good conductors of heat­ delocalised electrons are free to move. Hot
area atos have more KE therefore more collisions passing KE and heat
Good conductors of electricity­ delocalised electrons are free to move.
When p.d is applied electons move to positive terminal
Malleable ­ delocalised electrons act as space where the cations can be
pushed into
Ductile ­ cations slide across each other
Melting point decreases down the group as more shells of electrons ­weaker
metallic bonds
Graphite and its properties
Each carbon is covalently bonded to 3 other carbon ins
Each carbon has 1 free electron
Non metal able to conduct electricity as delocalised
electron can flow along plain when a p.d is applied
Can conduct heat as electron can flow along plain hot
regions move faster collide transferring KE

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Katie Overington 10/10/2007
Ionic bonding
Cations (positive)
Group 1 elements will lose their outer electrons most easily because the
ionisation energy is lower, and they are large so there is not much attraction
between protons and electrons.
Anions (negative)
Group 7 gains outer electron shells most easily as they only need 1 electron to
become isoelegronic with noble gases ­ stable.…read more


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