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Atoms are made up of smaller subatomic particles

An atom contains a nucleus of protons and neutrons surrounded by orbiting electrons in
shells. Protons have a positive charge, electrons have a negative charge and neutrons have
no charge. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons so…

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Ionic bonding is the transfer of electrons

All elements aspire to be like the noble gases and gain a full outer orbit in order to be more
stable. They can go this gaining or losing electrons to gain a full outer orbit. This common for
elements who need to gain…

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always say giant lattice structure with ions strongly attracted held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction
which are difficult to break require lots of energy.

Other examples of ionic compounds to be aware of ....

Calcium has two electrons to lose in order to gain a full outer electron…

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Covalent Bonding

Covalent bonds form between nonmetal atoms and nonmetal atoms when they share
electrons in order to become stable by having a noble gas structure in which their outer
electron shell is full. They achieve full shells by covalent bonding.

Need to know how to draw diagrams
Hydrogen atoms…

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Practice drawing: ammonia, hydrogen, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, methane oxygen
Those were all examples of simple, molecular substances. (Simple means only small amount
of atoms present.)

­ These atoms form very strong covalent bond however have very weak intermolecular
­ These weak intermolecular forces give low melting and boiling points…

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Metallic bonding
Metals form giant structures. Metal atoms have either two or three outer electrons. To get into
their stable noble gas structure they need to lose these electrons becoming positive ions.
When metal atoms are together in a piece of metal these outer electrons form a sea of free…

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Nanomaterials ­ when smaller properties change for different uses
A nano metre (nm) is a billionth of a metre. Nano particles range from 1100 nano metres.
The manipulation of matter on a molecular scale(working with nano particles) is called

Nanoparticles have a large surface area (useful as catalysts) for…


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