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SAM- sympathetic adrenal medullary PAS- pituitary adrenal system- delayed
system- immediate response response
· Brain perceives stressor in · Brain perceives stressor in
hypothalamus hypothalamus
· Activates the sympathetic nervous · CRF
system · Pituitary gland releases ACTH which
· Adrenal medulla releases adrenaline stimulates adrenal cortex to produce
and nor adrenaline which initiates cortisol
FOFR · Stimulates liver to release glucose into
· FOFR includes increased heart rate, blood for energy
breathing rate, blood rate and · Takes 20 minutes to activate
supressed saliva
· Ensuring body is ready to use energy
Body's Cortisol gives a quick burst of
reaction energy giving us low sensitivity
to pain, however it reduces the
production of growth hormones,
to stress lowers immune response.…read more

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Individual differences- Taylor et al- found oxytocin reduces cortisol
and leads to faster recovery, male hormones reduce the effect of
oxytocin whereas female hormones amplify the effect, so women
recover faster.
· Survival value- originally humans responded to stress using FOFR
when predators put us in physical danger, now stressors are more
psychological, eustress= positive stress, distress= harmful stress.
· Problems arise when stress responses are repeatedly activated-
chronic stress leads to high blood pressure forming plaque in
cardiovascular system, adrenaline increases cholesterol leading to
blood clots and thickened artery walls.
Key terms
Evaluation of Hypothalamus- controls secretion of hormones
stress FOFR- response allowing humans to either fight or
run away
Stress- subjective experience and lack of fit
response between a person and their environment…read more

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AIM To see if stress of exams has an effect on immune system functioning
METHOD Natural experiment, 75 medical students. IV= low stress (one month before
exams) and high stress (first day of final exams) DV= blood sample
measuring T-cell activity and questionnaire to asses life events.
FINDINGS T- cell activity significantly reduced in high stress blood sample. Most
reduced in students with high levels of life events and loneliness.
CONCLUSION Exam stress does reduce immune functioning, but it is also affected by life
events.
EVALUATION Natural experiment- fewer ethical objections
The IV was long term form of stress whereas other experiments had
artificially induced stress
Biased sample- only medical students, limits generalisation, low
ecological validity
Keicolt Glaser key study…read more

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Supportive study's for stress reducing Unsupportive study for stress reducing
immune function immune function
Marucha et al- inflicted punch biopsy in Segestorm and miller- meta analysis and
mouth of students either during their holidays concluded that short term stressors can boost
or 3 days before their final exams. Found immune system. Long term stressors led to
wounds in exam group took 40% longer to suppression of immune system.
heal than holiday group.
Keicolt Glaser- used independent groups on
13 Alzheimer carers and 13 control group.
Used a punch biopsy on arm, wound healing
took an average of 9 days longer to heal in
carer group, suggesting chronic stress impairs
immune function.
Further research- immune system
functioning…read more

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AIM To investigate the role of general life stress on vulnerability to the common cold
virus.
METHOD 394 participants completed questionnaire on the number of stressful life events in
the past year. Also rated their levels of negative emotions. Scores were combined
into stress index. Participants then exposed to common cold virus. 82% became
infected, clinical colds were recorded.
FINDINGS The chance of developing a cold was significantly correlated with stress index
score.
CONCLUSION Life stress and negative emotions reduce effectiveness of immune system, less
able to resist infections.
EVALUATION Unknown most important stress element
No direct manipulation of IV, cause and effect cannot be inferred
Found a relationship between stress and illness- supports Keicolt.
Cohen key study…read more

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