First 4810 words of the document:
Meichenbaum's SIT is a cognitive behavioural method
designed specifically to prepare individuals for future
stressors. Following an initial phase of learning about the Kobasa's hardiness training is very similar to STI. Initially
nature of stress, coping and resilience, a phase of skills clients are trained to recognise the physiological signs of
training is provided. People are taught a range of coping stress, such as increased heart rate or sweating. This helps JIMENEZ ET AL. (2006)
strategies they could use to deal with stress. This is them recognise sources of stress. Individuals are then asked For people in stressful jobs, a hardy
followed by exposure to a series of graduated challenges, to think about a recent stressful situation and consider ways personality reduced the risk of burnout.
Biofeedback Uses in order for them to practise their newfound coping skills. in which it could have turned out better or worse. This gives However, they pointed out that personality
psychological means to bring about physiological changes and is By learning effective coping strategies, individuals are them insight into their current coping strategies. The final factors, such as hardiness shouldn't be
based on the elements of operant conditioning. Physiological functions effectively 'inoculating' themselves against the harmful stage is encouraging individuals to take on challenges they considered in isolation, but in addition to
such as heart rate and blood pressure are monitored and people are effects of future stressful situations, thus making are able to handle. Through this, they learn that they're other aspects of the work situation.
encouraged to try various strategies to reduce the physiological themselves more resilient in the process. capable of coping with stressful situations.
readings. These can be muscle relaxation or meditation. The aim is to EVALUATION: EVALUATION: As TURNIPSEED (1999)
find a strategy to reduce, for instance, blood pressure consistently, and This method doesn't just deal with current stressors, but it with SIT, hardiness training is lengthy and requires Found that nurses who scored high on
then to transfer the strategy in to the real world. Biofeedback can be also gives the client the skills and confidence to cope with commitment and motivation, and would never be a rapid hardiness were less likely to feel under
very successful for some individuals, especially children (Attanasio et future problems. The focus of skills acquisition provides solution to stress-management problems. Kobasa's studies pressure at work than those with low scores.
al.) who enjoy the technological aspects in controlling, for instance, long-lasting effectiveness. However, SIT requires a lot of usually involve White, middle-class businessmen, so the KOBASA (1979) High-scoring nurses reported a clear
migraine headaches. However, the treatment is also expensive in terms time, effort, motivation and money. results cannot reliably be generalised to women or different AIM - To identify personality factors that may affect an individuals understanding of their role and felt they were
of equipment and time. Relaxation techniques can easily be learned classes and cultures. response to stress. part of a team that worked together.
some other way. PROCEDURE - 600 executives and managers completed two
questionnaires: a personality questionnaire and a questionnaire BRADY (1958)
Beta blockers asking them to list the illnesses and stressful events that they'd AIM - To investigate the link between stress and illness in monkeys.
They treat physical symptoms of stress, experienced in the last 3 years. On the basis of their responses, the PROCEDURE - Pairs of monkeys were linked to an apparatus that gave electric
reducing ANS symptoms such as palpitations participants were divided into two groups: this who had scored shocks. In each pair, one monkey (the executive) could prevent shocks to both
and tremor. The reduction in physical above average on illnesses, and those who had scored below monkeys by pressing a lever. The other (yoked) monkey also had a lever, but
symptoms may in turn lead to an average. pressing it didn't prevent shocks. This procedure was repeated over several
improvement in the psychological symptoms RESULTS - For both groups, the scores for stressful events were weeks.
of anxiety. high. However, in contrast to the high stress/high illness group, RESULTS - The executive monkeys developed ulcers; the yoked monkeys did not.
those in the high-stress/low illness group were more likely to: feel CONCLUSION - The executive monkeys had to remain constantly vigilant to
more in control of their lives, have a sense of commitment and prevent the shocks, whereas the yoked monkeys couldn't do anything to prevent
1) Benzodiazepines (BZs) - Most commonly
purpose in their work and social lives and welcome change as a the shocks. Constant vigilance is extremely stressful, and this stress led to the
used drugs which can be very effective
challenge. People with these characteristics were defined by development of ulcers.
against states of stress and anxiety. They act
Kobasa as having a hardy personality. EVALUATION - The monkeys were not randomly allocated in to the 'executive' or
by reducing serotonin activity and central
CONCLUSIONS - People with a hardy personality are better able to 'yoked' condition: only the monkeys that were able to learn that pressing the lever
brain arousal. Long-term use of BZs can lead
cope with stress. prevented the shocks were allocated to the executive condition. This means that
to psychological and physiological Hardiness training differences between the two groups of monkeys could have accounted for the
dependency. Therefore, in order to reduce the Alarm stage - When the presence of a stressor is
A link between stress and personality has different outcomes of the 'executive' and 'yoked' monkeys. Additionally, the use of
risk of dependency and withdrawal registered the hypothalamic-pituitary system
been suggested by Kobasa's concept of the monkeys causes problems when generalising the results to humans. Monkeys
symptoms, BZs should only be prescribed for Stress-Inoculation Training secretes a surge of ACTH which, in turn, releases
hardy personality. Some people seem to cope have a different physiology to humans, and thus are likely to respond to stress in Exhaustion - If the stressor is long lasting or/and
short-term use. Can also cause drowsiness corticosteroids from the adrenal cortex.
very well in stressful situations, while others different ways. Nevertheless his study allowed researchers to investigate the severe, the body enters this final stage. Heart
and affect memory. Meanwhile, the sympathetic branch of the ANS is
break down under what appears to be very effects of severe stress in ways that would not have been possible using human rate and blood pressure return to apparently
2) Buspirone - An alternative anxiolytic drug, activated leading to increased adrenaline and
little pressure. participants. noradrenaline being secreted from the adrenal normal levels, but the excessive levels of
which acts on serotonin receptors. This drug Physiological/Biological approaches medulla. The body is thus prepared for energy adrenaline and noradrenaline in the bloodstream
is not addictive so withdrawal symptoms are
expenditure, ready for what Cannon called the cause the adrenal glands to stop functioning
not an issue. properly. Body tissues and internal organs are
TSUTSUMI ET AL. (2007) Key features = how people perceive and evaluate "fight-or-flight" response.
demands, and coping abilities. This model likely to be adversely affected, and even mild
In a 9 year longitudinal study, they found that CHERRY ET AL. (2006) - WORK OVERLOAD Psychological approaches emphasises the role of individual differences in Resistance - The body's stress response is fully sources of additional stress cause an immediate
lack of control at work was a significant Identified work overload as a major factor in activated and is apparently coping with the and strong reaction. At this stage, resistance to
how people perceive and react to stressful
predictor of suicide among Japanese male work-related stress. Work overload can be situations. stressor, and so from the outside things seem to illness is lowered, due to suppression of the
workers. quantitative, where people feel that they have be under control. If the stressor is removed, the immune system. It is at this stage that what Selye
too much to do, or qualitative, when they feel Proposes that stress is an imbalance between a body will revert to normal functioning. Although refers to as illness of adaptation, such as ulcers
MARMOT ET AL. (1991) person's perception of environmental demands,
their work is too difficult. it may be some time before raised hormone and CHD, can occur. If stress continues, the
Carried out a 3 year longitudinal study of over and the person's estimation of his/her ability to levels return to normal, there is little chance of individual suffers from burnout, when he/she is
3,000 civil servants, measuring job control JOHANSSON ET AL. (1978) Personality factors and stress cope with these demands. any permanent damage. no longer able to function adequately and may
and stress-related illness. They found that AIM - To investigate if work stressors such as repetitiveness, high attentional even die.
people with low job control were 4 times more Some people overestimate the demands and
demands and a lack of control over the pace of work affected workers' stress Stress and serious illness
likely to die of a heart attack than those with underestimate their preparations. Others will
levels. The transactional model
underestimate the demands and overestimate
high job control. PROCEDURE - The researchers identified a high-risk group of 14 workers in a their preparations.
Swedish timber mill. Their work was highly repetitive and demanded a lot of
VAN DER DOEF AND MAES (1998)
attention. They also had no control over the pace with which their work was The pituitary-adrenal system
A review of research that concluded that a
carried out. These workers were compared with a low-risk group of 10 1. Higher brain centres evaluate a situation as
combination of high job demands and low
cleaners, whose work was more varied, largely self-paced, and allowed more The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) being stressful.
control is associated with an increased 2. Hypothalamus (Releases corticotrophin
socialising with other workers. Levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline in
chance of heart disease. releasing factor (CRF)
workers' urine was measured on work days and on rest days. Records were
3.Pituitary gland (Releases adrenocorticotrophic The sympathomedullary pathway
kept of stress-related illnesses and absenteeism.
The body's response to stress hormone (ACTH) 1. Hypothalamus (Activates the sympathetic
RESULTS - The high-risk group secreted more stress hormones (adrenaline branch of the autonomic nervous system)
KANNER ET AL. (1981) and noradrenaline) on work days than on rest days, and higher levels than the 4. Adrenal cortex (Releases corticosteroids (e.g.
cortisol) into the blood stream) 2. Sympathetic Nervous System (Activates the
AIM - To investigate a possible association between hassles, uplifts control group (low-risk). The high risk group also showed significantly higher adrenal medulla).
and stress, and compare the outcome with the use of the SRRS as a 5. Effects on the body (Facilitates the conversion
levels of stress-related illnesses and has higher levels of absenteeism than the 3. Adrenal medulla (Releases adrenaline and
of fat and protein into energy, inhibits the
predictor of stress. low-risk group of cleaners. noradrenaline into the bloodstream).
immune system response.
PROCEDURE - 100 men and women, aged 45-64, completed the CONCLUSIONS - Monotony, vigilance and lack of control are associated with 4. Effects on the body (Heart rate, blood pressure
Hassles and Uplifts Scale once a month for 10 months. The stress. The levels of stress-related illnesses and absenteeism may indicate that and sweat-gland activity increase to prepare the
Evolutionary link: In our evolutionary past, the
DELONGIS ET AL. (1982) relationship between hassles, uplifts and stress symptoms, both stress at work has health implications. EVALUATION - fight-or-flight response was adaptive in body for the fight-or-flight response.
Compared Hassles scores with Life Events, positive and negative, was investigated. Participants were also Some variables, such as individual differences are not controlled in this study; Stress management facilitating physical ways of dealing with stress,
and found that although both correlated assessed each month using the SRRS, and a health questionnaire. it may be that certain people who are vulnerable to stress (e.g. people with a and it continues to be triggered as our bodies
significantly with health status, the association RESULTS - Hassles were positively correlated with psychological Type A personally) are attracted to high-risk, demanding jobs, such as working respond to stress. However, many of the The immune system consists of a series of KIECOLT-GLASER ET AL. (1984) The effects of stress on the immune system.
for Hassles scores was greater. No statistical symptoms associated with stress. There was a negative correlation in a timber mill. The study also doesn't identify which of the various work stressors we now experience cannot be dealt defences that work together to stop infection AIM - To investigate whether exam stress associated with a lower immune
relationship was found between Uplift scores between uplifts and stress symptoms. The Hassles and Uplifts Scale stressors may be the most stressful. with by taking physical action, so this response from spreading. When antigens are detected, the response.
and health outcomes. was a better predictor of stress symptoms than the SRRS. has become maladaptive. There is no outlet for immune system stimulates leucocytes, such as PROCEDURE - This was a natural experiment using 75 medical students.
CONCLUSIONS - Everyday stressors are a better predictor of stress, the physical responses demanded by the alarm natural killer (NK) cells, to destroy them. It also Blood samples were taken one month before their first-year exams
and therefore vulnerability to illness, than life events Workplace stress reaction, with the result that these responses can produces antibodies that bind to antigens and (relatively low stress), and again on the first day of their exam (high stress).
EVALUATION - The majority of research on this subject has only Stress-related illness and the immune system harm our health. identify them as targets to be destroyed. The students were also given questionnaires to assess psychological
Sources of work-related stress include work Antibodies remain in the bloodstream and variables such as life events and loneliness. MARUCHA ET AL. (1998)
focused on the negative effects of hassles, this study allowed the AIM - To investigate the effect of stress on
overload and underload, lack of control, the continue to be effective if the same antigens are RESULTS - Natural killer cell activity was significantly reduced in the second
effects of uplifts to be identified as a possible factor for decreasing wound healing. COHEN ET AL. (1991)
nature of the job, changes in the work present on a later occasion. These processes blood sample, taken on the day of the exam. Immune responses were
the negative effects of stress. However, like the SRRS, the Hassles become less effective when the immune system METHOD - Small wounds were made on the hard AIM- To investigate the relationship between the
environment and role conflict. particularly weak in students who had reported feeling most lonely, who
and Uplifts scale doesn't take into account chronic sources of stress. is impaired. palate of 11 dental students, first during a experience of stressful events and susceptibility
Cancer occurs when a body cell begins to were experiencing other stressful life events. to a cold virus.
RAHE ET AL (1970) Stress CONCLUSIONS - Exam stress is associated with a lowered immune response. college vacation and then 3 days before a major
replicate out of control. These cells begin to One of the effects of stress is to suppress the examination. Healing of the wound in each case PROCEDURE - Healthy volunteers were injected
AIM - To investigate whether scores of the Holmes and Rahe SRRS invade areas of healthy cells, and unless they This is more extreme when stressors other than the immediate stress of the with a common cold virus. Volunteers in a similar
Cancer immune system, thus making the stressed exam, such as loneliness and life events, are taken into account. was assessed using two measures: daily
were correlated with the subsequent onset of illness. are destroyed or removed, they eventually individual more vulnerable to illness. However, control group were injected with a placebo (salt
Kanner et al. (1981) suggested that it may not EVALUATION - This use of a natural experiment means the results are likely photographs and a foaming response to
PROCEDURE - 2,500 male American naval personnel were given the cause damage to tissues and organs, and Evans et al. (1997) found that this vulnerability hydrogen peroxide. solution). All participants were then given a
SRRS to assess how many life events they'd experienced in the be so much the impact of major life events Hassles and Uplifts Scale to have high ecological validity. However, this study only tested medical stress index, based on the number of stressful
ultimately death. Whenever cancer cells only results from chronic stress. Acute stress, RESULTS - Wound healing took on average 3 days
previous 6 months. The total score of the SRRS was recorded for that leads to stress, but rather the everyday Life changes and daily hassles students, who might not be representative of the target population. This events that they had experienced in the past
begin to multiply, the immune system acts to which is short-lived does not have this effect. It limits the extent to which these results can be generalised to other groups in longer during the examination period than
each participant, then over the following six-month tour of duty, hassles that we all experience. They also Coronary heart disease check their uncontrolled growth, and in a seems that we are able to respond to short-term year, the extent to which they felt able to cope,
society. The results are also correlational, meaning the results do not during the vacation.
detailed medical records were kept. The LCU scores from the SRRS suggested that, conversely, uplifts might have normal healthy person this is successful. stressors with few ill effects. CONCLUSIONS - Even something as relatively and their experience of negative emotions such
a positive effect on our health, working to necessarily show a cause and effect relationship. as anger and depression.
were correlated with illness scores. Hypertension However, under stress resistance to cancer JACOBS AND CHARLES (1980) Similar effects have also been shown for long-term stressors. A later study short-lived as the stress of an exam can affect
RESULTS - There was a small but significant positive correlation cancel out the hassles. cells may be lowered as stress suppresses AIM - To investigate a possible association between the the immune system and delay healing. RESULTS - Almost all those injected with the cold
conducted by Kiecolt-Glaser et al (1995) investigate 13 women who were virus showed signs of infection, although only a
between LCU's and illness. the immune system. development of cancer in children and the experience of stressful highly stressed as a result of caring for relatives with dementia. For them a
Holmes and Rahe (1967) developed the SRRS The SRRS third developed colds. Even when other factors
CONCLUSIONS - Life changes, whether positive or negative, have a life events. PROCEDURE small cut took on average 24% longer to heal than for a non-stressed control
which linked life events to stress and illness. The were taken into account, such as age, diet, use of
significant positive relationship with physical illness. - The families of 50 children, aged 3-17, were interviewed about group. tobacco and alcohol, and exercise, there was a
EVALUATION - This study doesn't take into account individual basic principle was that any life event - whether the experience of stressful life events during the previous year. positive relationship between the stress index
differences in reactions to stress. The results are also correlational pleasant or unpleasant - is stressful, because it Half the children had cancer, while the others were a control and cold symptoms.
which means a causal relationship cannot be guaranteed. The sample requires us to adapt to new circumstances. The group. Medical records were also assessed in order to establish VISINTAINER ET AL. (1983) PALESH ET AL. (2007) CONCLUSIONS - People who are stressed are
used was restricted to male US Navy personnel. This reduces the scale was developed using patients' records to Emotion-focused & Problem-focused ways of the incidence of major stressful life events in the year before the Injected animals with cancer cells. Those that A history of experiencing stressful life events more vulnerable to infection.
ecological validity of the study and makes it difficult to generalise to identify the life events that the individuals had coping with stress. onset of cancer. were exposed to stress were more likely to was associated with the more rapid
other populations. experienced in the months before they became ill. RESULTS - Both the interviews and the medical records showed develop tumours than controls that were not progression of breast cancer.
100 independent people were asked to rate each CHD is the result of atherosclerosis. that the cancer group had experienced more frequent stressful life stressed.
RAHE AND ARTHUR (1977) of the 43 life events in terms of how much change Atherosclerosis can be explained in terms of events than controls. CONCLUSION
the fight-or-flight response. Hormones MCKENNA ET AL. (1999)
Found that people with high LCU scores were it would bring about in a person's life, and these - The experience of stressful life events may be linked to the
released into the bloodstream raise blood A meta-analysis of 46 studies found an
more likely to develop physical and ratings were used to give each event an LCU (life development of cancer and recent stressful experiences.
pressure, heart rate and result in stores of fat association between the development of
psychological illnesses, more susceptible to change unit) score up to 100. Holmes and Rahe EVALUATION - Cancer is caused by many different factors,
HARBURG ET AL (1973) being released to provide more energy. If breast cancer and stress.
sports injuries, and more likely to be involved claimed that an LCU score of more than 300 for including hereditary disposition, exposure to environmental
in traffic accidents. events during the previous year was associated AIM - To investigate a possible association physical action is taken, these fat stores are JACOBS AND BOVASSO (2000)
factors such as cigarette smoke or asbestos fibres etc. This
with a range of serious health problems, such as between stress and hypertension. used as energy, but if not, they may be Found a stronger association between chronic
means that stress alone is not enough to predict the development
diabetes, stroke and leukaemia, as well as less PROCEDURE - Participants living in Denver deposited on the walls of arteries and create depression and the development of cancer
serious everyday problems, such as headaches were divided into 'high stress' and 'low stress' blockages that restrict the blood supply to the than between cancer and recent stressful
and colds. groups, depending on the area in which they heart, leading to CHD. experiences.
LAZARUS AND FOLKMAN (1984)
lived. A 'high stress' area was one where there
How life events are perceived and managed FRIEDMAN AND ROSENMAN (1974)
was a high crime rate, large population and a
plays a crucial role in their impact. AIM - To investigate a possible correlation between Type A personality and MATHEWS (1984)
high level of poverty. The incidence of
EVALUATION: hypertension in both groups was measured. vulnerability to CHD. Found a much weaker relationship between
1 - The scale doesn't take into account individual differences. In RESULTS - Participants in the 'high stress' PROCEDURE - 2000 healthy men, aged 39-59, were studied over a period of 9 Type A personality and CHD.
the SRRS, Christmas if given the lowest LCU score. However, group were more likely to suffer from years. They were interviewed about their eating habits and how they respond in
RAGLAND AND BRAND (1988)
christmas could be an extremely stressful time if you're short of hypertension than those in the 'low stress' stressful situations. The interviewer consistently interrupted the participants to
Found no difference between Type A and Type
money and have several children expecting expensive presents. group. asses behavioural elements of Type A personality such as impatience, hostility and
B men in terms of the likelihood of developing
2 - The relationship between SRRS scores and health if CONCLUSIONS - There is some evidence of a competitiveness. Participants were divided into groups depending on their
CHD. In fact their findings suggest that Type A
correlational and so tells us nothing about causality. link between environmental stressors and personality: Type A and Type B. The death rates for the two groups were compared.
men might be in fact at less risk. This could
3 - The SRRS only looks at crisis events, which do not occur often. hypertension. RESULTS - Over the 9 years, 275 participants died from CHD. Nearly twice as
be explained in terms of hardiness.
It doesn't take into account the effects of longer term stressors, many Type A as Type B participants died, even when other factors associated with
such as looking after a relative with dementia, as in the Kiecolt- heart disease, such as smoking and obesity, were taken into account. Type A
Glaser et al. (1995) study. The stress involved here would be long participants also had higher levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline than those who MYRTEK (2001)
term and gradual. A person could therefore be extremely stressed were Type B. CONCLUSIONS A meta-analysis of 35 studies showed a
without having experienced any of the stressors on the SRRS. - Having a Type A personality predisposes people to CHD. EVALUATION significant association between Type A
- Although some aspects of lifestyle were controlled for, there may have been other behaviour and heart disease. However, this
variables that could have affected vulnerability to heart disease, such as elements was only in studies that included angina.
COBB AND ROSE (1973) of hardiness. Moreover, this was not an experimental study, so cause and effect
They investigated rates of hypertension in air cannot be assumed; other studies have failed to show a relationship between Type
traffic controllers, whose jobs require constant A behaviour and heart disease.
vigilance and are therefore very stressful. The
incidence of hypertension among air traffic
controllers was compared with that among Folkman and Lazarus suggest that there are
airmen in a less stressful job. They found that two forms of coping: emotion-focused coping
the incidence of hypertension was several and problem-focused coping. In emotion-
times higher for the air traffic controllers than focused coping, people attempt to minimise
for the airmen. or eliminate unpleasant emotions. This can
include thinking about a stressful situation in a
positive way, denying the problem exists and
wishful thinking. In problem-focused coping,
people try to avoid negative emotions by
taking some action to avoid or minimise the
stressful situation: they change their
behaviour to cope.
FOLKMAN AND LAZARUS (1980)
AIM - To assess the kinds of coping strategies used in stressful situations.
PROCEDURE - In this 1 year longitudinal study, 100 participants aged 45-64 were
interviewed once a month, and completed self-reporting questionnaires about
stressful events that they'd experienced. They also completed the Ways of Coping
check list to indicate how they responded to the stressful events.
RESULTS - The participants referred to 1332 episodes, and for 98% of these, both
problem-focused and emotion-focused coping were used. Problem-focused coping
was more often used in situations perceived as circumstances that could be
changed. Contrastingly, emotion-focused coping was used more when the person
believed that there was nothing that could be done to bring about change.
Participants didn't show consistency in the coping methods used. In work situations
males where more likely to use problem-focused coping.
CONCLUSIONS - Both emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping are
used in stressful situations, with most people using a mixture of both. The extent to
which each is used is influenced by the degree of control that a person believes he/
she has over the situation.