Stress in everyday life

Life changes, daily hassles, work place stress, personality factors, coping with stress and stress management.

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 18-05-09 11:49
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Stress in everyday life
1 . Life changes:
Different life changes have different effects on stress, e.g. Divorce, holidays, etc.
Individual differences for meaning of life events
Correlational studies - not cause
Memory may be poor - low validity and reliability
2. Daily hassles:
Irritating things in everyday life e.g. Road rage - opposite of daily uplifts e.g. Compliments
Hassles and uplifts scales (HSUP) in positive correlation with depression in undergraduates
Hassles can have more impact than life changes due to less social support
3. Work place stress:
Demands - having more to do than you can manage, or so little you get bored. Control - having
no control over your work rate or content; not being able to set your own priorities. Role -
having to fulfil incompatible roles during work or having a work role that clashes with other
roles e.g. family
Aerobics can help
Can lead to CHD/depression
Research is almost always out of date as work place always changes
Highly stressed workers 2x more likely to die from heart problems
High demands + low control = more risk of heart disease
4. Personality factors:
Type A - impatient, hostile, competitive - Friedman and Rosenman study. Assess 3200 healthy
American men - after 8½ years 257 developed CHD (70% Type As)
Hardiness - control, commitment, challenge, thriving employees
5. Coping with stress:
Emotion-focused - deals with emotions such as denial caused by stress e.g. Waiting for exam
results
Problem-focused - deals with problem itself e.g. Before exams
6. Stress management:
Psychological
Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) prepares for now and later stressors; conceptualisation,
skills training and real life application. More effective than systematic desensitisation for
snake phobia, students given SIT improved academic rank. Time consuming and
overcomplicated.
Hardiness Training involves focusing on problem, relieving stress encounters and self
improvement. Hardy people more resistant to stress, higher sense of control, increased
self confidence. Worked for Olympic swimmers, but involves changing
personality/lifelong habits so not a fast method.
Physiological
Drug Therapy increases levels of certain neurotransmitters, then increasing in some
brain areas and sympathetic nervous system. Drugs such as BZs, BBs, antidepressants
and alcohol. BZs are more superior to placebos. BBs helped musicians overcome stage
fright, easy to use. Can be addictive fast, side effects of most drugs, treat symptoms -
not problem.
Biofeedback Training includes change to heart rate and respiratory activity and
alterations to muscular tension. Aims to alter these.

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