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Stress as a bodily response!
· The response that occurs when we think
we can't cope with the pressures in our
environment.
YES- deal with
Pressures Judgement- demand. Little/no
from do we stress.
environment. believe we
can cope?
NO-fail to deal. Feel
stressed.
We get stressed due to our judgements and if we think
we can't cope.…read more

Slide 3

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Bodies response to stress
The cerebral cortex is a higher brain centre -> it evaluates
whether something is a stressor, this then sends a signal
to the hypothalamus and this triggers 2 processes.
Sympathomedullary pathway (ST) Pituitary-adrenal system (LT/counter
shock response)
Initial shock-Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus
Sympathetic
branch CRH
Used to
Anterior pituitary replace
energy that is
Adrenal medulla
ACTH used in the
initial
Adrenaline Noradrenalin Adrenal cortex response.
These affect the body in several ways...
-Blood pressure increases
Corticosteroids
-Digestion decreases
-Muscles become tense
Fat Protein…read more

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Continued
· Changes in the body can be
seen as having survival value.
· During evolution threats would
have been from predators or
physical dangers.
· To respond we would have
required a `fight or flight'
response.
In modern times stressors are
more psychological, therefore
long-term. So physical stress
responses are not really
needed.…read more

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Stress and Physical illness
· Han Selye -> stress as a 3 stage response
· He concluded that stress of daily injections caused the illnesses of
rats and that all animals and humans react to stressors through a 3
stage response called General Adaptation Syndrome.
· 1) ALARM STAGE- Our bodies first reaction to a stressor is to
increase arousal levels, so we're ready for `fight or flight'
· 2)RESISTANCE STAGE- If stressor remains for the long-term our
body adapts to it so we can cope normally.
· 3)EXHAUSTION STAGE- After a long term exposure to a stressor
our bodies will eventually be unable to continue with the situation.
This is supported by a lot of scientific research.
Neglects the fact that the bodies reaction to stress does vary.…read more

Slide 6

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Stress and Physical illness-
immune system
Kiecolt-Glaser et al- stress and
wound healing.
· Brady et al- stress and the
development of ulcers. Method:- Independent measures
· Method:- Monkeys put into pairs design, a punch biopsy was used
and given electric shocks every to create a small wound on the
20 secs for 6hr sessions. arms of 13 carers of Alzheimer's
1monkey could push a lever to
disease. A control group of 13ppl
postpone shocks (executive) The
other couldn't also took part.
· Results:- The executive monkey' Results:- Wound healing took an
s were more likely to develop average of 9days compared to the
ulcers and die. control group.
· Conclusion:- This illness was not
due to the shock but the stress Conclusion:- LT stress impairs the
that the executives felt in trying effectiveness of the immune
to avoid them. This reduced the system to heal wounds.
immune systems ability to avoid Evaluation: The effects of the
illness.
carers could be due to poor diet
· Evaluation:- Ethical issues and
etc Also the study only used a
can't be generalised to humans.
small amount of people.…read more

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