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Stress as a bodily response:

Stress-a complex set of physiological and psychological responses to an external
stimulus that is perceived as a threat to one's well-being e.g. bereavement,
work-related stress and financial problems

Stressor- any stimulus perceived as threatening and causing a stress response.
Frustration, conflict and life events…

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Research into immune system under stress:

Kiecolt-Glaser et al- natural experiment volunteer sample of 75 first year
medical students, blood sample taken one month before/during final
examinations and tested for T-cell activity, questionnaires given too
measuring loneliness/life events. Found T-cell activity significantly lower
second time, questionnaires T-cell activity weak those…

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which experienced over last 2 years, total score is the stress in life, found people score of 150+ 30%
more likely stress related illness, 300+ increased to 50% so more life changing events greater
chance of getting stress-related illness


! Provide valuable insight how source of stress and relationship…

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X Daily hassles scale prone to retrospective bias and social desirability bias lowering validity of

X Findings provide correlational evidence only as only a relationship cause and effect cannot be
established so firm conclusions cannot be drawn

Bouteyre et al- significant positive correlation between daily hassles and depressive symptoms…

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! Natural experiment so high external validity

X Low population validity as limited sample so not representative of other workplaces or professions
so findings may not generalised beyond sample

X Cause and effect cannot be established as natural experiment so no control of extraneous
variables so firm conclusions cannot be…

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Benzodiazepines e.g. valium increase activity of neurotransmitter GABA leading to more chloride ions
entering the neuron=less excitatory activity, GABA increases the firing of inhibitory
neurotransmitters, overall inhibitory effect less arousal and anxiety

Beta-Blockers- reduce activity of the sympathetic branch of ANS decreasing adrenaline and
noradrenaline, bind to receptor cells of…

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