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Transactional model of stress
· Defines stress as an imbalance between
perceived demands on an individual & their
perceived coping resources.
· Primary appraisal ­ The person assesses a
situation to determine potential threats.
· Secondary appraisal ­ The person assesses
their ability to cope with a threatening
situation.…read more

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SAM & HPA axis
· The biological reaction of the body in
response to a stressor (anything that causes
Hypothalamus Hypothalamus
ANS Pituitary gland
Adrenal medullar ACTH
Adrenalin & noradrenalin Adrenal cortex Liver releases energy
Fight or flight response…read more

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The general adaption syndrome of
stress (G.A.S)
· Prolonged stress can cause illness as you
become exhausted, when under acute stress,
the SAM & HPA axis kick in.
· Exam link ­ `Discuss the G.A.S model of stress'…read more

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Research ­ Stress & the immune
· Kiecolt Glaser (1984) ­ Her group used 75 medical
students preparing for exams, as an index of immunity
they used natural killer cells. Measures of NK cells
were recorded in periods of high & low stress. She
concluded that stress reduces immune function,
making people more vulnerable to illness.
Evidence to support the link between stress & illness.
· Lacks ecological validity as study only used students.
· No manipulation of IV so no cause & effect relationship
can be determined.…read more

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Research ­ measuring stress
· Rahe (1970) ­ Investigated the link between
life changes & illness, using 2500 male US
navy personnel, to create an illness score.
Rahe concluded that there was a positive
correlation between life events & the
development of stress related illnesses.
· Evaluation ­ Gender and culturally biased.
· No manipulation of IV so cause & effect cant
be determined.…read more

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