Stratospheric ozone depletion.

This word document contains the same information as my power point on stratospheric ozone, but I uploaded this too incase you find this more helpful than power points.

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Stratospheric ozone depletion
Contents:
Page 1 ­ Title page.
Page 2 ­ Incoming insolation, introduction, and the different wavelengths of UV.
Page 3 ­ How much UV reaches the Earths surface, and stratospheric ozone.
Page 4 ­ The effects of UVB on living organisms, and the depletion of stratospheric ozone.
Page 5 ­ The depletion of stratospheric ozone continued.
Page 6 ­ The hole in the ozone layer, and saving the ozone layer.
Page 7 ­ Saving the ozone layer continued, and replacement materials, methods or
processes.
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Incoming insolation
Introduction
Light (solar insolation) is affected by latitude, cloud cover, seasonal and daily changes.
The Sun emits electromagnetic radiation across most of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Although the Sun produces Gamma rays as a result of the nuclear fusion process, these
super high energy photons are converted to lower energy photons before they reach the
Sun's surface and are emitted out into space. As a result, the Sun does not emit gamma
rays.…read more

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How much UV reaches the Earth's surface
The levels of UV radiation reaching the Earth's surface vary. This is due to factors such as the
time of day, the time of year, latitude, altitude and the weather. No UV C reaches the Earth
as it is absorbed by the ozone layer in the stratosphere.
Stratospheric ozone
What is ozone?
Ozone is tri-atomic oxygen (O3).…read more

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Effects of UVB on living organisms
Effects on humans:
o Sunburn
o Skin cancers
o Premature ageing of the skin
o Cataracts (can lead to blindness)
Effects on plants:
o Photosynthesis decreases
o Plant height and leaf area decrease
The negative effects of UVB on plant growth could lead to a decrease in crop production if
the levels of UVB increase.…read more

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Where did CFCs come from?
Most CFCs have been released to the atmosphere through the use of aerosols containing
them and as leakages from refrigeration equipment. Other releases occur from industry.
How do they break down ozone?
Once in the atmosphere, CFCs drift slowly upward to the stratosphere, where they are
broken up by ultraviolet radiation, releasing the chlorine that catalytically destroys ozone.
1. UV radiation breaks off a chlorine atom from a CFC molecule.
2.…read more

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The hole in the ozone layer
There has been a steady decline in ozone of 4% per decade in total volume since the late
1970's.
The hole formed over Antarctica as there are stratospheric cloud and ice particles here that
are not present in the stratosphere in the warmer regions. Reactions that destroy ozone
more quickly happen on the surface of ice particles.…read more

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Replacement materials, methods or processes
There isn't a way to replace stratospheric ozone other than the natural way that it forms so
after all CFC emissions have stopped then it should recover naturally.…read more

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