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Strategies for memory improvement
How mnemonics work
Word associations and visual images are used to create links.
The brain uses it naturally when recalling things but using mnemonics speeds up the process.
Putting things in order also aids recall as the brain can find information much quicker.
This was shown by Bower et al. (1969) where recall of words was 2/3 times better if the
words were organised into hierarchies than if they were random.
These strategies also work well because they make us add detail to the information to be
Although frequency of the repetition is important, the fact that it is elaborative is more
Dual coding hypothesis
This was created by Paivio in 1971
It deals with the concept that words which can be made into images are encoded twice, as
verbal and image- based symbols
It can be linked to the phonological loop in the working model memory
This was shown by Bower (1972) when participants were given two unrelated words. Those
asked to produce an image linking the two recalled 80% of the words whereas those asked
merely to memorise the words recalled 45%.