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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 1
References: Storylines Book (OCR 21st Century)
Made by Nabilah Chowdhury
EL1: Where do chemical elements come from?
Universe Stages
1. Extra hot temps. from Big Bang Hydrogen + helium nuclei formed (most abundant in space)
2. Temp decreased over years
3. The electrons (negatively charged) now had less energy = moved slower so now they are slow enough to
be captured by the nuclei (positively charged)
4. Hence, universe is mainly made of H2 +He
Star Cycle Stages
1. Dust + gas clumped together to form gas clouds
2. Gas clouds contracted in on itself b/c of gravity gasses were compressed clumps of "denser" gas = CORE
/ centre of star
Nabilah Chowdhury, 12RH

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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 2
3. The compressions makes the gasses very hot atoms lose electrons and become plasma of ionised atoms
and free electrons
4. NUCLEAR FUSION occurs where nuclei gain enough energy to travel at high enough speeds to overcome
electrostatic repulsion between the other (+ve) nuclei
5.…read more

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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 3
Gorgeous Gamma
Inside the sun
The sun mainly emits visible light.
Core - hottest region, where the nuclear fusion reactions
that power the Sun occur.
Radiative zone - energy is carried outward through this
layer as thermal radiation by photons.
Convective zone - heat moves upward via roiling
Photosphere - boundary between the Sun's interior and
the solar atmosphere is called the.
Chromosphere ­ contains ions/atoms/molecules which
absorbs some light emitted from the photosphere
Corona ­ high temps.…read more

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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 4
1. Chromosphere absorbs EMR the atoms in the chromosphere are raised to a higher energy level = EXCITED
2. They then lose the extra energy by emitting photons of EMR
3. These emitted photons of EMR produces specific coloured lines/frequencies on the emission spectra
Radioactive Dating
C-14 has a relatively short half-life (6000 years) ­ this is used to back up dating methods but is also dependant on the
reliability of the material provided.…read more

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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 5
2. Electrical discharge is present
3. The molecules react under these conditions
4. Products formed are amino acids
Second Experiment
1. Dilute solution of ammonia and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is made
2. Frozen for a few days
3. Identified amino acids + adenine (base) in it
The amino acids produced are evidence that molecules in space form human life because AA's are used to produce
proteins, which in turn enable the correct functioning of cells in the body.…read more

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Elements of Life Storylines Notes 6
K Nervous system functioning
S Proteins
Cl Osmosis
Na Nervous system functioning
Mg Regulates enzyme reactions
Solutions for lack of calcium in body
Need to find out how much Ca is taken into the bloodstream, by using tracers (e.g. radioactive isotopes). However,
this is dangerous so an alternative is to use non-radioactive isotopes (e.g. Sr). You can measure the intensity of the
red characteristic light that Sr emits, and compare it to Ca, which is proportional to Sr.…read more


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