stereotypes studies you need to learn

stereotypes studies you need to learn

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  • Created on: 11-04-12 07:50
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Stereotypes, Prejudice and
Studies, Definitions and Techniques
Stereotype: A generalised, over-simplified set of
ideas that we have about a particular person based
on traits such as their age, sex or race. An example
is....(think of your own!)
Prejudice: A rigid set of attitudes and beliefs that
we have about a particular group of people. These
views can be positive but are generally negative.
Discrimination: Treating someone differently as a
result of a prejudiced viewpoint, such as talking
down to old people because you believe that they
are slow-witted.

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Causes of Prejudice ­ Competition
Sherif (1961)
Aim To see if competition can be a cause of prejudice
Method Sherif created a summer camp called Robbers
Cave. 22 white middle-class American boys were taken
to the camp, randomly allocated into two groups. The
groups were given a series of sporting competitions with
the prize of a silver cup for the best group.
Results The boys quickly developed group identities.
Once the competitions started the groups became
hostile towards each other with name calling and
fighting.…read more

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Causes of Prejudice ­ Individual Differences
Adorno (1950)
Aim To find out if there is a relationship between
personality type and prejudiced beliefs
Method Hundreds of people were interviewed and
tested using the F- scale.
Results There was a relationship between personality
type and prejudiced views. Adorno believed this to be a
result of strict, critical parenting.
Conclusion There is an authoritarian personality, and
people who have these characteristics tend to have
prejudiced views of others.…read more

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There are some prejudiced people in society who didn't
grow up with critical and strict parents, and people who
had strict parenting but are not prejudiced
Causes of Prejudice ­ In-groups and Out-groups
Tajfel (1970)
Aim To show how easily people discriminate against their
Method 14-15 year old boys were randomly assigned to two
groups. The boys played a game where they chose amounts of
points to be allocated to their own and the other group. The
points could be exchanged for prizes.…read more

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Reducing Prejudice ­ Increasing Empathy
Method Jane Elliott helped her young pupils to understand the
concepts of prejudice and discrimination by making them
experience it. She divided her class according to whether they
had brown eyes or blue eyes, telling them that blue eyed
people were better and cleverer than brown eyed people, and
listing the privileges that the blue eyed children would enjoy.…read more

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Reducing Prejudice ­ Cooperation
Method Sherif wanted to remove the prejudice that he
had created between the two groups of boys in his
summer camp and get them to become friends.
Sherif had tried taking the boys to the cinema and for a
meal but they still fought and argued, so Sherif created
a situation where the boys would have to work together.…read more

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Reducing Prejudice ­ Jigsaw Method
Method Aronson wanted to reduce the racial prejudice
between black and white students in a Texas school. He
used the jigsaw method (also known as expert groups)
which involved mixed groups of students working
together on a shared task. Each member of the group
was responsible for finding out some information
relating to the task and feed this back to the rest of the
group.…read more

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Reducing Prejudice ­ Increased Contact
Method Harwood investigated the attitudes of young
people towards the elderly using interviews and
questionnaires with young people, their parents and
their grandparents.
Harwood found that the young people who had the
most contact with their grandparents also had the most
positive attitudes towards them and towards old people
in general
Evaluation Interviews and questionnaires can be
unreliable because people may give biased answers to
present themselves in the best way.…read more

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A useful summary of stereotype studies for all GCSE Psychology students.

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