State Dualism


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State Dualism
July 1933 ­ One Party State,
The Nazi Party claimed sole political responsibility.
Totalitarian Claims, Propaganda told people that Nazism was a, "clear well ordered system of Government".
Reality, Chaos, as the relationship between the Nazi Party and the Apparatus of the German State was never defined.
Result, There was much confusion between the two forces. The resulting clash was given the term "dualism".
Revolutionary elements within the Party wanted to control the Civil Service and smash traditional organs and create a new
Germany. But.... The Bureaucracy was well established and staffed by experience people. Only Jews and opponents were
purged. The Nazi Party continued to grow, which diluted its revolutionary zest. Hitler was unclear on the issue of Party and
Position of Party,
December 1933, "Law to ensure Unity of Party and State". This was very ambiguous and led to further confusion.
February 1934, "The party's principal responsibility is to implement government measures, propaganda and
indoctrination". September 1934: "The Party controlled the State. The Party should assume responsibility for tasks the
state had failed to fulfil".
Reich Chancellery: Headed by Hans Lammers. Role to co-ordinate government. Drew up all government legislation.
Became the vital link between Hitler and other organisations. Controlled the flow of information. This became very difficult
due to the multiplicity of agencies.
Government Ministries; Transport, Education and Economics.
All run by leading Civil Servants, but conflicted with, eg Nazi Institutions, Ministry of 4 Year Plan ­ conflicted with Economy.
"Ribbentrop's Bureau", Conflicted with Foreign office.
Dualism ­ Party Institutions,
The Nazi Party structure had originally been to get the party into power. Up to 1933, it had diversified to attract different
groups, e.g., Hitler Youth, NS Teachers' League, and SA. All wanted to hold on to their power. The Party became
splintered and newly formed institutions conflicted with existing ones. Membership and administration were based
around Fuhrerprinzip. This was not effective in government. The Gauleiters felt their allegiance was to Hitler and so they
tended to resist authorities of party and state.
Improvements in Party Structure ­ Rudolf Hess,
Original Party Member. Took part in Munich Putsch. Helped Hitler write Mein Kampf. 1933-41 deputy leader of Party and
held various Ministerial Posts. Limited abilities, no real power, but helped to develop a more influential party bureaucracy.
Hess's Achievements in the Party,
As Deputy Leader he was granted special powers. 1935, given permission to vet the appointment and promotion of all
Civil Servants and oversee the drafting of legislation. By 1939 it became compulsory for all Civil Servants to be members
of the Nazi Party. Laid foundations for increasing Party supervision.
Martin Bormann,
1919-20 joined Freikorps. 1924 - Convicted of murder ­ served one year in prison. 1927 ­ Joined Nazi party. 1928 ­
Became Gauleiter of Thuringia. 1933 ­ Became Chief-of-Staff to Hess, with responsibility to organise the Party. 1941 -
Became Head of Party after Hess's departure. 1943 ­ Hitler's Secretary.
Bormann's Achievements,
Despite limited education, and brutal background, became a workaholic bureaucrat. Alongside Hess, played vital role in
improving the Party bureaucracy over the State. Created two new departments to strengthen the party (and his own)
position: The Department for Internal Party Matters, to exert party discipline; and the Department for Affairs of State,
which aimed to secure party supremacy over the State. Was a radical Nazi; advanced racial policy against the Jews and
acted against the Christian Churches. Used his position to block access to Hitler from other leading Nazis. Also engineered
conflict between others.
Effects of Hess and Bormann's Work,
The Party strengthened its position in relation to traditional apparatus of State. The Party became one of the key power
blocs within Nazi Germany, but the Party bureaucracy always had to compete with established State institutions, which
were never dissolved. The internal divisions and rivalries within the party itself were never overcome. The independence
of the Gauleiters remained an obstacle to total control. The party never really became as pervasive and dominating as the
Communist Party in the USSR.


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