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Stalking refers to the obsessive following or observing of another
ABSORPTION ADDICTION MODEL
Developed by McCutcheon in 2002.
Celebrity worship typically begins in adolescense due to deficits in real
relationships at this time in our lives.
This model predicts that there will be an association between poor mental health
and the strength of parasocial relationships.
The first stage is absorption - discover as much as possible about a celebrity and develop a belief
of a special relationship with the celebrity.
The second stage is addiction - it becomes addictive as individuals feel they need to become more
and more involved with the celebrity to feel connected to them. They crave greater closeness with
Maltby et al found that pp's on level 2 of the CAS scored highly on
anxiety and depression.
Mullen et al found that delusional disorders were common amongst
+ It provides an account of how worship can develop
+ The idea that absorption leads to addiction is well supported
The attachment theory suggests attachment in infancy forms an internal
working model for later relationships.
Research shows early attachment problems can lead to social and emotional problems later on in
PSR's therefore in insecure attachments (most likely ambivalent) meaning people are needy and
clingy in their relationships.
PSR's are attractive as they make no demands and there is no risk of rejection.
Lewis et al found that stalkers have traits typical of insecure attachment such as ambivalent
attitudes to those they have relationships with and emotional instability.
+ It has a good face validity as it makes sense.
- It is deterministic - not all insecure attachments will form a parasocial relationship.
- Hard to remember what type of attachment type you had as a baby.
- Socially sensitive as it blames the family.
Mullen et al (1999) studied reports of stalking and developed five categories that
explain the reasons for stalking:
Intimacy seekers (those who wished to establish a close relationship with someone)
Rejected stalkers (those who had been rejected by the person they stalked)
Resentful (those who wish to punish someone who had wronged them)
Incompetent suitors (those who used this as a means to get a date)
Sexually motivated stalkers (which was solely male stalkers)
Purcell et al (2002) studied 40 female stalkers and 150 male stalkers. The males
reported more history of criminal offences and substance abuse. Females and males
differed in terms of their motivation for stalking. The female stalkers generally were
looking for intimacy and they usually stalked someone whey knew, often someone who
worked in a `caring' profession such as nurse or teacher. Males however showed a
broader range of reasons for stalking.
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Kienlan et al (1997) examined the case histories of 25 stalkers. One third had a
diagnosed psychotic mental disorder. The personality profile of the non-psychotic
stalkers included traits such as anger, hostility, obsession, dependency and jealousy.
The non psychotic stalkers made more violent threats and carried out these threats.
Effects on victim
Pathe and Mullen (1997) asked 100 victims of stalking to complete a questionnaire.…read more