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Stalin's Russia 1924-53

Structure of the Soviet State
October Revolution passed state power to Russia's soviets
Each town or region was administered by local soviet that was
elected by the people
Each soviet elected representatives to the `All-Russia Congress of
In theory Russia's supreme law making body
All-Russia Congress…

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Revolutionary record:
Committee member
Carried out orders from others
Present on many senior committees

Relationship with Lenin:
Relied upon Stalin's admin skills
Before Lenin's death backed him
However when he became ill he started to oppose him
Highly critical of him in last testament after argument with wife, said…

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`Most able force amongst young'
Doubted his ability as a theorist
Appeal within the party:
`The favourite of the whole party'
Party positions:
Unofficial role of party theist
Head of 2 main communist newspapers (enabling him to influence party
ideas and stop others getting in the media
Government positions:


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Party positions:
Became Chairman of the Central Committee on Lenin's death
Head of the Moscow branch of the party, allowed them to gain support.
However poor at his job and failed to earn respect of the people
Government positions:
Acting char of the Politburo
No obvious leader
Government passed…

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The left wing ­ `permanent revolution'
Trotsky, Russia did not have resources or technology to complete
transition to socialism alone
Trotsky wanted a revolution in western Europe so they could provide
Russia with resources
The right wing ­ `socialism in one country'
Stalin & Bukharin, `socialism in one country'

Page 6

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2. Destroy influence by questioning ideology, loyalty to Lenin and
activities after the revolution
Denying Trotsky power
Last testament called for Stalin to be sacked which would destroy
Triumvirates majority
Argued Testament undermined authority of government and should
therefore be kept secret ­ it was.
Stalin's use of being general…

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15th party congress 1927 ­ Zinoviev, Kamenev & Trotsky expelled from
Stalin versus Bukharin & the right opposition
1928 ­ Stalin rejected NEP, ending alliance with Bukharin
Bukharin appeared in the stronger position (party theorist, controlled
media, favourite of the party. Plus support of 2 senior members, Tomsky

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What was collectivisation?
Process to reform Russian agriculture
Merge small forms into larger `collective farms ­ making them more
State would provide machinery to make more efficient
Reasons for Collectivisation
Economic reasons for Collectivisation
Grain harvests were decreasing towards end of 1920's
Russia government once sold grain surplus abroad…

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Gave poorer peasants (minority) power to lead the farms
However majority of peasants rebelled against, destroying crops rather
than surrender them (18 million horses, 100 million sheep)
Kulaks destroyed remaining machinery
The Twenty-five-thousanders
To stop people refusing to implement collectivisation issued a decree
sending '25,000 socially conscious' industrial workers into…

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Blamed `kulak spirit' for these failures
However did play a part in urbanisation (1922-40 number of people in
cities 22million to 63 million
Political consequences
All this chaos united party behind Stalin (blamed Kulaks and peasants
for problems
Left wing viewed it as heroic return to traditions of civil war…


Roudha Mansoori


thanx this helped me a lot

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