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Ideology and leadership style.
· Ideology: Belief or body of doctrine
that guides an individual or
movement.
· Leadership style : Provides direction,
manner and approach to aid the
administration of an ideological
beliefs.…read more

Slide 3

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Autocrat /relations with others in
power/social policy - the communist
divide
· Broad power base
· Held prominent positions of responsibility like General Secretary and Commissar for
Nationalities
· Used the Right, led by Bukharin,Rykov and Tomsky to defeat the Left.
· The Left wanted a more rapid transition from NEP (New Economic Policy) to a
Socialist state, with a focus on industrialisation.
· The Right believed that peasants should be encouraged to produce more and pay
more tax, so that revenue could be used to speed up industrial development.
· Stalin was promoting his policy of Socialism in One Country, with the aim of
developing a socialist state for protection against capitalist ideas.
· 1928 : Stalin committed to rapid industrialisation (previously supported on the left).
When the Right opposed this, Stalin removed its leaders from the Politburo,
effectively becoming the leader of the USSR
· He encouraged Communist divisions so he could obtain absolute power…read more

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Economic policy/opportunism -
collectivisation
· Soviet agriculture suffered greatly from War Communism and the Great
Famine of 1921-2.
· 1926 : production had mostly recovered to pre-First World War levels.
· However, richer peasants were taxed more heavily than poorer peasants,
meaning many tried to hide their produce
· This was a major cause of the 1927-8 procurement crisis.
· The crisis forced the regime into requisitioning (Urals-Siberian method)
and then into collectivisation.
· By 1939, 99 per cent of land had been collectivised.90% of the peasants
lived on one of the 250,000 kolkhoz (farms run as co-operative in which
the peasants pooled their resources and shared the labour and the wages).
· Farming was run by government officials.
· The government took 90 per cent of production and left the rest for
people to live on.
· Over 10 million peasants died in
opposition.…read more

Slide 5

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The GPU (Soviet secret police agency) collected lists of peasant complaints.
· Other forces : 1917-22 Cheka: (All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-revolution and
Economic
Sabotage). Set up to ensure Bolshevik survival during the Civil War from 1918.
policy/propaganda/opportunism/manipulation of the
· 1922-34 GPU & then OGPU: (Department of Political Police).
·
social system/use of intimidation
1934-43 NKVD: (People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs)Given extraordinary powers to carry out the purges. The
whole system of policing united under this one body.
· In several areas of the USSR its policies were being defied.
· Stalin blamed the influence of `kulaks' and made a decision in 1926 to destroy the kulaks as a class.
· Kulaks disagreed with Stalin's policies, they benefited from the NEP.
· They were taxed more heavily.
· Their children were denied an
education.
· 1928 ­ many given hard labour.
· They had their property confiscated.
· There had been increasing
confrontations between peasants so the…read more

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Economic policy/industrial expansion
· 1926: Supreme Council of National Economy created. State enterprises contributed to
a fund which should have meant that more profitable businesses would subsidise less
fortunate businesses. In reality it was unsustainable.
· The government realised the seriousness of the failing industry in 1927 and 1928,
there was a drive to increase efficiency of businesses.
· High production costs resulting from inefficient industry meant that prices were
higher, so people would not buy products. Inefficiency rather than high wages caused
the crisis.
· Increase in targets but no increase in wages, causing strikes.
· Strikes were bad because the working class was held up to be the vanguard of the
move towards Socialism.
· The authorities would not admit that they were to blame for the worsening economy
as that would be acknowledging Stalin's failures.
· Instead, class enemies were made scapegoats.…read more

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