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Specialised Cells
By Laura Stringman…read more

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Fat Cell
If you eat more food than you need, your body makes fat
and stores it in fat cells. These cells help animals, including
us, to survive when food is in short supply. Fat cells have
three main adaptions:
· They have a small amount of cytoplasm and large
amounts of fat, this is because they need to store more
· They have very few mitochondria as the cell needs very
little energy, as it doesn't move very far.
· They can expand ­ a fat cell can end up 1000 times its
original size as it fills up with fat.…read more

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Cone Cells From Human
Cone cells are in the light-sensitive layer of your eye (the retina).
They make it possible for you to see in colour. Cone cells have
three main adaptions:
· The outer segment contains a special chemical (a visual
pigment). This changes chemically in coloured light. It needs
energy to change it back to its original form.
· The middle segment is packed full of mitochondria. The
mitochondria release the energy needed to reform the visual
pigment. This lets you see continually in colour as it has lots of
· The final part of the cone cell is a specialized synapse that
connects to the optic nerve. When coloured light makes your
visual pigment change, an impulse is triggered. The impulse
crosses the synapse and travels along the optic nerve to your
brain.…read more

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Root Hair Cells
You find root hair cells close to the tips of growing roots.
Plants need to take in lots of water (and dissolved mineral
irons). The root hair cells can help them to take up water
more efficiently. Root hair cells are always close to the
xylem tissue. The xylem tissue carries water and mineral
ions up into the rest of the plant. Root hair cells have two
main adaptions:
· The root hairs increase the surface area for water to
move into the cell.
· The root hair cells have a large permanent vacuole that
speeds up the movement of water by osmosis from the
soil across the root hair cell.…read more

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Sperm Cell
· Sperm cells are the male reproductive cell.
· They have long tails with muscle-like proteins so they can
swim towards the egg.
· In the middle section, they contain many mitochondria
which produces lots of energy for the tail to work.
· The acrosome stores the digestive enzymes which break
down the outer layers of the egg.
· The large nucleus contains the genetic information
which is passed on during fertilisation.…read more

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Leaf Cell
This absorbs light energy for photosynthesis. It is packed
with chloroplasts. It's regular shaped, closely packed cells
form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight.…read more

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