Specialised Cells

A summary of all the main Specialised cells. Hope you like it!

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Specialised cells
Cells may be specialised for a particular function.
Their structure will allow them to carry this function out. Here are some examples:
Leaf Cell/ Palisade Cell
The function of a leaf is photosynthesis
to absorb light and carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates
Adaption Purpose
Large surface area To absorb more light
Thin Short distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into leaf cells
Chlorophyll Absorbs sunlight to transfer energy into chemicals
Network of veins To support the leaf and transport water and carbohydrates
Stomata Allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf
Adaptation
Packed with chloroplasts.
which contains chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynthesis
Large surface area
tall
to have maximum absorption of light
Regular shaped
closely packed cells form a continuous layer for efficient absorption of sunlight. Tall with a large
surface area.
Found on top side of leaf
ideal for good absorption of CO2 and light

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Root Hair Cell
Function
Absorbs water and mineral ions from the soil
Adaptations
Long 'fingerlike' cell
gives a large surface area.…read more

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Cone cell from human eye
Function
in the light sensitive layer of eye (the retina)
help you see in colour
Adaptations
Visual pigment
the outer segment contains a chemical called visual pigment
changes chemically in coloured light
changing it back to its original form requires energy
Mitochondria
middle segment is packed with mitochondria
Produces lots of energy so visual pigment can reform and the eye can see continually in colour
Synapse
a specialised nerve ending
connects to the optic nerve which carries impulses to your…read more

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Adaptations
Protective jelly coating
which the sperm must burrow through in order to fertilise the ovum.…read more

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Red blood cell
Function
contains haemoglobin to carry oxygen to the cells
Adaptations
thin outer membrane
to let oxygen diffuse through easily
biconcave shape
increase surface area
allows more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently
increases speed of movement of oxygen in and out of the cell
helps them pass smoothly through capillaries to
reach body cells
no nucleus
more space for haemoglobin
Guard cell
Function
used to open and close pores on the leaf (stomata)
Adaptations
kidney shape
can open and close the stomata leaf…read more

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Function
to protect the body and kill pathogens
Adaptations
irregular shape
they can change shape to squeeze out of blood vessels and get to the site of infection
cytoplasm that can flow
makes it possible for the cell to change shape
surround bacteria
engulf bacteria
can increase in number
helps them fight disease better
stomata close to stop too much water evaporating
more lysosomes
more digestive enzymes for engulfing & digesting pathogens.…read more

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Muscle cell
Function
They are cells found in muscles in animals, they contract and relax together to move the organisms.
Their function is to contract to support and move the body.
Adaptations
contractile filament
they are made of contractile filament to help in contraction.
mitochondria
contains lots of mitochondria to supply the cell with energy
Nerve cell
Function
The functions of the nerve cells are to carry messages around our body.…read more

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