Solids, liquids and gases revision

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Solids, Liquids and Gases Summary
Density
Density () = mass (m) / volume (v)
· Density is how much there is in a given volume
For a regular solid
- Find the volume (volume = width x height x depth) in cm3
- Find the mass with top-pan balance AtpointB,thepressure
- Divide the mass by the volume ac4ngonitis1atm+the
pressureduetothewater
For an irregular solid ofheighth.AtpointC,
- Find the volume by measuring how much water it
thepressureisthesame
displaces in a measuring cylinder
aspointBastheyarethe
- Find the mass with top-pan balance
samedepth.
- Divide the mass by the volume
For a liquid
- Find the mass of the measuring cylinder with a top-pan
balance
- Find the mass of the measuring cylinder and 10cm3 of liquid
- Subtract mass of measuring cylinder to find mass of liquid alone
- Divide the mass by the volume
For a
gas
-Find mass of round-bottomed flask with gas using top-pan balance
-Remove gas from flask with vacuum pump (for 30 seconds)
-Fasten clamp to make sure no air gets in
-Measure mass of empty round-bottomed flask and subtract this from previous reading
-Place end of rubber tubing in water then remove clamp. Allow flask to fill
-Measure volume of water with a measuring cylinder (this is the volume of gas that was
measured)
- Divide the mass by the volume
Pressure
Pressure (p) = Force (F) / Area (A)
· 1 Pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2
· Solid objects exert downwards pressure upon where they stand.
· The smaller the surface area, the greater the pressure
· In stationary liquids and gases, pressure at any point acts equally in all directions
· Pressure increases with the depth of the gas or liquid (as it has the mass of the liquid/gas on
top of it, which makes it heavier, and so a greater pressure)
· A difference in pressure between two places in a fluid will result in a flow of the fluid from the
place at higher pressure to the place of lower pressure
· Liquids cannot be compressed, so pressure is transmitted through them
· If air gets into hydraulic brakes it is a problem as it can be compressed, so the pressure
wouldn't be transferred
Pressure and Depth
Pressure difference (p) = Height (m) x density (kg/m3) x Gravitational field strength* (N/Kg)
*On Earth, this is 10N/Kg
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Air bubbles expand as they rise as the lower pressure means the air particles become further
apart
The States of Matter
· Molecules in a solid are tightly packed and held in fixed positions by strong forces. The
molecules vibrate around their fixed positions. As the solid gets hotter, these vibrations get
bigger.
· Molecules in a liquid are closely packed but do not have a regular structure.…read more

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