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Object Linking & Embedding (OLE)
OLE allows information to be shared between different
­ For example, a spreadsheet created in Excel can be
included in a Word document either by embedding it in
the document, or by creating a link from the document.
An embedded object has no connection with its
original source file.
A linked object ensures that the information
displayed in the document will always be displayed
­ via the link ­ directly from the source file.…read more

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Object Linking & Embedding (OLE)
Linked object
­ original information remains in the source file
­ destination file displays a representation of the linked
information but stores only the location of the original
­ linked information is updated automatically if you change
the original data in the source file
­ Use if file size is a consideration
Embedded object
­ becomes part of destination file.…read more

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Portability of Data
Portability is the ability to run the same program on
different types of computer. It can also refer to the ability
to transfer a file from one computer to another.
For all sorts of reasons, it's important to be able to
transfer data between applications and between
computers of the same or different types, perhaps using
different operating systems.…read more

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Examples of Portability
You're writing a report in Word and want to be able
to insert an Excel spreadsheet in the report
You're using a desktop publishing system and you
want to be able to import some graphics from a
drawing package
You're doing a research assignment and want to
download articles from the Internet on `Computers
and Dolphins'
You want to e-mail your friend on a Unix machine in
Hull from your PC in Southampton, and send her a
scanned photograph she requested…read more

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Problems with portability
A document created using one word processing package (e.g.
Word) commonly cannot be read by a another (e.g. Word
Perfect) running on the same computer
Formatting codes vary in different packages.
­ For this reason, most word processing packages allow documents
to be stored in `Text only' format.
A document created on one computer using a particular word
processor appears differently on the screen of another computer
running the same word processing package.
­ Some word processors (e.g.…read more

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Software manufacturers commonly bring out upgrades about every two
years. This causes some or all of the following problems:
­ Documents or applications produced by the upgraded software are
not `downwardly compatible' (or `backwards compatible').
· In other words, a document written in Version 6 can usually be read in
Version 7, but not vice versa.
· Usually, the newer version allows the user to save the file as a `Version
6 file' so that it can be read by the earlier version.…read more

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Criteria for selecting a software
Compatibility with existing hardware. Will the software run on existing
Compatibility with existing software. Can files from other packages be
Quality of documentation
Ease of learning. How good is the on-line help? Are tutorials available?
Ease of use. Easy to use? Shortcuts for advanced users?
Technical support. Is this available, and at what cost?
Upgrade policy. Will future upgrades be available at a discount? Can files
created in older versions be used?
Speed.…read more

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Evaluating software
Before selecting a particular package you
­ Read reviews of it in a computer magazine.
Magazines commonly compare similar software
packages on dozens of different criteria;
­ Consult other users who have experience of the
type of software you are thinking of purchasing;
­ Perform benchmark tests (performance tests) to
see how fast various packages perform a number
of different tasks. Computer magazines often
publish the results of benchmark tests.…read more

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Software Reliability
Batch systems are relatively easy to test.
­ More controlled environment, where data is entered as batch,
processed and then output.
­ Expected results easily compared with actual results
­ Problems can be fixed and tests run again.
More complex on-line systems with GUI interfaces are much
more difficult to test:
­ No single, well-defined flow of events at user interface.
­ It is often nearly impossible to restore a database to the condition it
was in before a bug was detected.…read more


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