Sociology Unit 2: Education Social Policy Timeline

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No state system
Rich educated privately (at home, abroad or boarding school)
Church and charity schools for few wc children
Most had no formal education (most of population were wc)
Need for a literate and numerate workforce due to industrialisation
The Forster Act, 1870
Free compulsory up to the age of 10
Elementary schools ­ free (wc); reading, writing and arithmetic; expected to start work at 10/11 (cheap pool of labour with basic skills)
Grammar schools ­ for mc; for professions; fee or scholarship to join
Further education only open to wc
Favour this due to free education providing a bridge between home and work
Transmit value consensus, work skills, discipline
Ensures passive docile factory
Mc pupils given an academic curriculum ­ prepare for professional careers or office work ­ private and secondary education
Caused the age of free compulsory education to increase to 13
Post war optimism `homes fit for heroes'
The Butler Act/Education Act, 1944
The tripartite system restructured secondary education (still free)
11+ exam sat to enter secondary education
Pupils selected by age, ability and aptitude
Passed 11+ grammar school
Failed 11+ secondary modern
Interests in science and engineering technical
Free university education with requires A levels

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General Evaluation
× Approx.…read more

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Discontent with tripartite system limiting opportunities available to many students
Local authorities such as Anglesey and Sheffield rebelled, dismantling this selective system
Comprehensivisation, 1965 ­ New Labour
Academic and vocational, all abilities
Catchment areas (no 11+) ­ geographical mobility, community identity, social class mix
Aimed to overcome social class divide ­available for children of any ability
For Comprehensivisation
Streaming ­ flexible to move between, potential for wc gaining qualifications
Equal opportunities ­ helps late developers (no 11+), wc talent not wasted
Same/better progress than…read more

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Social Action: Teachers still more likely to labelled mc as ideal, wc in lower bands/sets
1979 ­ Election of conservatives (NR)
1980 ­ Assisted places scheme
Marxists: supports social reproduction by perpetrating the private system
1983 ­ TVEI/New vocationalism
1987 ­ Switch form CSE/GCE to GCSE
Education Reform Act, 1988 ­ New Right
Attempt to marketise education and make schools more varied/diverse
Thought that standards were slipping, not enough skilled workers for the economy
Schools competed for their custom(ers) by publishing good results ­…read more

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Ball: the `myth of parentocracy' ­ mc parents could use cultural capital to play the systems
× Ball: exams chose brighter pupils ­ inequality
× Bartlett: `cream skimmed and silt sifted' ­ able pupils cost less to teach, getting rid of those with learning difficulties (expensive) saves money
× Whitty: advantaged schools and parents paired
× `Choice' was actually `preference'
× Most parents get first preference ­ 66% in 2010
× CTCs and grant maintained ­ selective entrance, emphasised social class divide, less choice for…read more

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Primary policies: reducing class sizes baseline literacy and numeracy test and targets at 5yrs; introduced literacy and numeracy hours
Maintaining Diversity + Choice
Kept grammar and 11+, selection continues
Kept comprehensives ­ 87% of pupils attend
Still parentocracy and marketisation
Comprehensives encouraged to become specialist schools in a particular curriculum area ­ around 85% by 2007
Specialist results better than non-specialists, 59.5% pupils with 5 GCSE A*-Cs against 47.…read more

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Vocational education: industry related studies as school or college (Forster Act, technical schools)
Vocational training: work or work-like situations
NR post `88: CTCs, GNVQs, compulsory w/e, teachers with closer links to industry
NL post '97: 11-14 core ICT and DT, 14-16 core ICT and 2 weeks w/e, new academies with high vocational content, 14-19 diplomas (hand-on)
Voc. ed.…read more


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