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No state system
Rich educated privately (at home, abroad or boarding school)
Church and charity schools for few wc children
Most had no formal education (most of population were wc)

Need for a literate and numerate workforce due to industrialisation
The Forster Act, 1870
Free compulsory up to…

Page 2

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General Evaluation
× Approx. 80% stigmatised as failures at 11
× No parity of esteem (overcoming class divide)
× Late developers penalised
× Social reproduction: mc in grammars
× 5% attended technical, nearly all wc
× Secondary modern leavers: school certificate
× 1:4 misallocated (80s stats ­ appeared made up)…

Page 3

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Discontent with tripartite system limiting opportunities available to many students
Local authorities such as Anglesey and Sheffield rebelled, dismantling this selective system

Comprehensivisation, 1965 ­ New Labour
Academic and vocational, all abilities
Catchment areas (no 11+) ­ geographical mobility, community identity, social class mix
Aimed to overcome social class…

Page 4

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Social Action: Teachers still more likely to labelled mc as ideal, wc in lower bands/sets

1979 ­ Election of conservatives (NR)
1980 ­ Assisted places scheme
Marxists: supports social reproduction by perpetrating the private system
1983 ­ TVEI/New vocationalism
1987 ­ Switch form CSE/GCE to GCSE

Education Reform Act,…

Page 5

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× Ball: the `myth of parentocracy' ­ mc parents could use cultural capital to play the systems
× Ball: exams chose brighter pupils ­ inequality
× Bartlett: `cream skimmed and silt sifted' ­ able pupils cost less to teach, getting rid of those with learning difficulties (expensive) saves money

Page 6

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Primary policies: reducing class sizes baseline literacy and numeracy test and targets at 5yrs; introduced literacy and numeracy hours

Maintaining Diversity + Choice
Kept grammar and 11+, selection continues
Kept comprehensives ­ 87% of pupils attend
Still parentocracy and marketisation
Comprehensives encouraged to become specialist schools in a particular curriculum…

Page 7

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Vocational education: industry related studies as school or college (Forster Act, technical schools)
Vocational training: work or work-like situations
NR post `88: CTCs, GNVQs, compulsory w/e, teachers with closer links to industry
NL post '97: 11-14 core ICT and DT, 14-16 core ICT and 2 weeks w/e, new academies…


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