Sociology studies - WJEC AS

Main studies for:

- social class

- ethnicity

- age 

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Age inequality
Researcher(s) Findings
Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 2682 managers and personnel professions were
(2005) studied and six in ten respondents (59%) reported
that they were disadvantaged at work because of
their age. 22% of managers said that age has an
impact of recruitment decisions. Over half (63%) of
respondents believed that workers between the
ages of 30-39 years old had the best promotion
prospects
Zmira Hornste (2001) Changes in legislation, such as forbidding employers
to set compulsory retirement ages may have made
employers less likely to recruit older workers.
However B&Q show a different policy.
Burholt and Windle JRF research (2006) Those most vulnerable to poverty in youth are older
generations. They are also more likely to be stuck in
poverty while younger people can move in and out
of it.
Age Concern (2005) Claim that carers save the UK 15 billion, and yet are
more likely to experience poverty themselves.
Help The Aged (2006) People are ignorant about poverty in old age and
believe basic state pensions will be enough to live
on. People believe the state will help them out
when they are older. This is not true ­ often elderly
have to sell homes and possessions before
receiving additional help from the state.
ESRC (2003) ­ growing older in the 21st century Many old people still live in conditions of poverty
and deprivation and social exclusion, the older the
person, the greater the deprivation.
Leach (2008) Those approaching retirement age disregarded age
as an importance factor of personal identity.
Ethnic inequalities
Researcher(s) Findings
Franz Boas Culture relativity ­ whatever one culture
finds normal and moral, another would find
disgusting and immoral.
Baker (1981) The direct racism associated by rejecting
people on the basis of their skin colour has
been replaced by New Racism ­ rejecting
those because of their culture. In 1982, Barker
said that the New Right tried to exploit

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British Culture
was under threat from other ethnic minorities.
Jane Elliot "blue eyes, brown eyes" study. Everybody is racist. And we don't need a
colour blind society ­ instead a society that
welcomes every culture and adapts to it.
Miles (1989) Racism is a key factor in stratifying ethnic
minorities at the bottom.
Patterson (1965) The host-immigrant model: this theory depicted
Britain as a basically stable and orderly
society with a high consensus over normal and
values.…read more

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Muncie and Heidensohn ­ within crime The police operate on a `canteen culture' that
is both racist and sexist. Have inside jokes and
ways of speaking to each other about ethnic
minorities.
Hood (2002) ­ within crime Black men are 5% more likely than white men
to be given custodial sentences
Holdaway ­ within crime Police have stereotypical views of
afro-Caribbean backgrounds. They are six
times more likely to be stopped and searched
by the police. Holdaway also suggests this
idea of a canteen culture.…read more

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Black
pupils.
Connolly (1998) ­ within education Found that teachers expected poor behaviour
from black boys and were more likely to
discipline them for what they perceived to be
bad behaviour.
Gillborn and Youdell (2000) ­ within education Argue that teacher racism is a major factor in
explaining the low attainment of Black pupils.
Class inequalities
Researcher(s) Findings
Spicker ­ within health People from lower classes, including children,
are more likely to suffer from infective and
- parasitic diseases, pneumonia, poisonings or
violence.…read more

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Macguire ­ within crime Confirms this picture of the typical offender as
a male, young, often Black, poor people who are
often uneducated.
Hughes and Langan (2001) ­ within crime Suggest that white-collar crimes are much less
visible, and they are sometimes called
victimless crimes as there may be no individual
victim involved. This can result in perceptions
of the typical criminal and the likelihood of
conviction for those committing white-collar
crimes.…read more

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