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Laboratory experiments
Consist of two groups:
1. The experimental group: Vary the variables/conditions
2. The control group: condition/variable stay the same
The idea behind the experimental method is that the scientist can manipulate
the variables in which they are interested; in order to discover what effects
they have, allowing them…

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Likely to produce Hawthorne effect
Some P's try to guess the purpose of the
Experiment and act in a in which they think the
Experimenter wants them to act.]


Free Will: Interpretivist's believe in free will meaning they deny the cause
and effect theory. They believe that behaviour is based…

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Study issues such as:
Teachers expectations
Classroom interaction
Labelling
Pupil's self-concept

Laboratory experiments and teacher expectations
Lab Experiment done regarding teacher expectations:
Havey and Slatin (1976)
Charkin et al (1975)
Mason (1973)




Ethical Issues:
Lab experiments rarely use real children = so no children suffer negative
effects ( e.g Mason…

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Vulnerable group
Don't understand nature of exp due to limited ability
Lack of informed consent
Psychological damage

Narrow Focus:
Focus on one aspect of teacher expectation (e.g. body lang)= allows
researcher to isolate variable and examine it more thoroughly
Teacher expectations are not see with the wider process of the…

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Some children may have been held back emotional because they were seen as
less and given less attention

Reliability
Rosethenal and Jacobson's simple researcher design= easy to repeat
Must consider individual differences e.g. age of pupils and teaching style
= unlikely original can be replicated exactly.

Validity
Rosethenal and Jacobson's…

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Reliability: Questionnaires are high in this because if they repeated by other
researcher they are bound to produce a similar result thus is partly for two reasons:
When repeated a Q is the identical to original, new respondent is asked exactly
the same question as original respondent, in same order…

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Researcher are guaranteed to obtain informed consent and provide P's
anonymity
Some ask sensitive question and P's are force to answer them

Response rate
Low response rate is a major problem for Q's. This is because very few who
receive them tend to return them.
High response rate can be…

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Interpretivist argue that Q's are likely to impose the R's own meaning rather
than that of the respondent
By choosing the Q's the R has already chosen what is important and what is not
When using closed ­ ended Q's has to try to fit the view to the answer…

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Teacher may be too busy to answer Q's as some are long and time
consuming= lower response rate
High response rate in school = when Head gives `okay' their power is put
behind R so teacher and students feel compeled to reply
Head may organise time in which to answer…

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Group interviews, with up to a dozen or so being interview at the same
time
Focus group are a form of group interviews in which the researcher asks
the group to discuss a certain topic and records their views




Structured interviews
Structured interviews are like Q's; both involve asking people…

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