Sociology Education Notes

Pretty much all my notes on education :D

- Past

- Functionalist theories

- Marxist theories

- Interactionist theories

- Feminism

- New Right

- And other stuff...

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  • Created by: Sanchia
  • Created on: 09-05-11 15:48
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Education
o In 1944 the school leaving age was 14 (later increased to 15 in 1947 and
then 16 in 1972)
o Schools were single sex and had a gendered curriculum
o Grammar schools were fee paying ­ (But scholarships were available)
o State schools were firmly under the control of Local Education
Authorities
1944 Butler's Education Act brought in the tripartite system
o Free grammar schools for the academically bright
o Technical schools for the skilled/artistic
o Secondary modern schools for everyone else
There was said to be equal opportunity for all because entry to any school was
based on the 11+ (partly assessed by IQ tests) and all schools were said to have
`parity of esteem'
Problems with the tri-partite system
o Grammar schools were still dominated by middle class children.
o Working class children's self-esteem was damaged (the perceived
themselves to be `failures')
o IQ tests were often culturally biased in favour of white middle class
children
o Not enough technical schools were built
o The system was unfair to girls. (i because too few `girls' grammar schools
existed in the previous single sex system. ii. Girls were deliberately
marked down in 11+exam )
o Regional variations ­ there were not enough grammar schools in some
areas so many bright children were `failed'
Because of biased selection, the tri-partite system was removed. This led to the
introduction of Comprehensive schooling.
o The Labour party introduced Comprehensive Schools to encourage
equality for all children.
o Conservative governments objected to comprehensive schools.
o Conservative governments believed in market forces and competition
between schools.
o They have encouraged a variety of different schools to develop.

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The Labour Party under Tony Blair and more recent education ministers
has continued with this policy.
In 1965, a weak and unpopular Labour government sent out a circular to all
Education Authorities known as 10/65. This told local education authorities, which
were run by local councils that they should prepare for comprehensive schools.
These would be single schools taking children of all abilities regardless of their
success. In some areas, local education authorities changed to this new system of
educating all children with some speed.…read more

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Functionalists
o Education helps maintain society
o Education provides skills for society
o Education allocates people to their right job
Emile Durkheim ­ founder of sociology
o Shapes Children
o School helps us feel part of society
o Social rules learnt in school
o Schools sort people for most appropriate jobs
Talcott Parsons
o Structural Functionalist Theory
o Schools are secondary socialisation
o Teaches children that the system is fair and equal to all
o Trains children to accept norms
Davis and Moore
o Inequality…read more

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Educations keeps the middle class up and the working class down
o Not a meritocaracy
Louis Althusser ­ 1970's
o Subordinate statues ­ inferior
o Conveys ideology of the ruling class
o Prepares children for world of work
o Keeps classes in place
o Socialised into accepting capitalism ­ Traditional Marxists
Paul Willis ­ 1977
o Did a study of `lads' ­ boys rejected school and students ­ considered
themselves superior
o Working class children choose to fail in school as a rejection of
capitalism…read more

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Approaches to understand the purpose of education are solid to be
deterministic
o Determinism means a person's behaviour is controlled by an external
force
o External force for Marxists is capitalism and the external force for
Feminism is patriarchy
o Individuals choose how they want to be behave
Hargreaves
o Most important aspects of the internationalist theory of education
concerns the way in which teachers make sense and respond to the
behaviour of their pupils
o Appearance
o Ability and enthusiasm
o Likeability
o Personality…read more

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Feminists
o Reproduces patriarchal power in society
o Curriculum is biased in favour of white middle class knowledge
o Text book and reading schemes are made biased
o Teachers of both sexes pay more attention to boys
o Hidden curriculum reinforces gender socialisation
o Subject choices are still gendered
o Sexual harassment of girls and women teachers by males
o Gender stereotyping in education is widespread, although the NC has
been introduced
Criticisms
o Society is becoming more equal
o Fewer stereotypes
o Multicultural society…read more

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Differential Achievement
Material Deprivation
o Low income means children are unable to afford school uniforms,
school trips, transport to and from school, classroom materials and
textbooks which means they may fall behind in school
o Internet access, desks, educational toys, books and space to do
homework may not be available
o Disadvantages children are concentrated in a limited number of
unpopular schools
o Most people from a working class background go to universities that are
near as they cannot afford the travel expenses.…read more

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Social Class
o Social class is more important that race and gender
o 25% in London are white students, 62% are white teachers, overall 95%
teachers in England are white
o In 2002 black boys were 3 times more likely to get excluded than white
boys
Oscar Lewis (1950's)
o Culture of poverty
o Poor people develop distinct sub-cultural values to enable them to
survive poverty, but which disadvantaged their children in school.…read more

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Broken relationships
o Victimization by crime
o Despair and fatalism
Dalrymple (2001)
The British underclass have developed a culture of
o Passive thinking
o Denial of agency and personal responsibility
o Dishonesty and self-deception
o Rationalisations for self-induced helplessness, such as addiction
o Perverse, primitive, valueless sexualisation
o Absolute refusal to apply or accept judgement
C Wright-Millis (1950's, Marxist)
o Elite self-recruitment
o Members of the highest sectors of society prevent educational failure
and protect their interests and their children by sending their children
to…read more

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Male Subcultures
Paul Willis `Lads' (1977)
Mac and Ghail (1994)
o Macho Men ­ hostile to school and authority, unemployment, physical
work/manual jobs
o Academic Achievers ­ working class
o New Enterprise ­ business studies, computing, technology (don't
necessarily do well in academic subjects
o Real Englishmen ­ middle class, don't want to be seen as trying too hard
but want to go to a good university
o Gay students ­ neglected, hidden curriculum
Female Subcultures
Mac and Ghail - Masculine subjects, acceptance of the…read more

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