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o In 1944 the school leaving age was 14 (later increased to 15 in 1947 and
then 16 in 1972)
o Schools were single sex and had a gendered curriculum
o Grammar schools were fee paying ­ (But scholarships were available)
o State schools were firmly under the control…

Page 2

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o The Labour Party under Tony Blair and more recent education ministers
has continued with this policy.
In 1965, a weak and unpopular Labour government sent out a circular to all
Education Authorities known as 10/65. This told local education authorities, which
were run by local councils that they should…

Page 3

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o Education helps maintain society
o Education provides skills for society
o Education allocates people to their right job

Emile Durkheim ­ founder of sociology
o Shapes Children
o School helps us feel part of society
o Social rules learnt in school
o Schools sort people for most appropriate…

Page 4

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o Educations keeps the middle class up and the working class down
o Not a meritocaracy

Louis Althusser ­ 1970's
o Subordinate statues ­ inferior
o Conveys ideology of the ruling class
o Prepares children for world of work
o Keeps classes in place
o Socialised into accepting capitalism ­…

Page 5

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o Approaches to understand the purpose of education are solid to be
o Determinism means a person's behaviour is controlled by an external
o External force for Marxists is capitalism and the external force for
Feminism is patriarchy
o Individuals choose how they want to be behave


Page 6

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o Reproduces patriarchal power in society
o Curriculum is biased in favour of white middle class knowledge
o Text book and reading schemes are made biased
o Teachers of both sexes pay more attention to boys
o Hidden curriculum reinforces gender socialisation
o Subject choices are still gendered

Page 7

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Differential Achievement
Material Deprivation
o Low income means children are unable to afford school uniforms,
school trips, transport to and from school, classroom materials and
textbooks which means they may fall behind in school
o Internet access, desks, educational toys, books and space to do
homework may not be available…

Page 8

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Social Class
o Social class is more important that race and gender
o 25% in London are white students, 62% are white teachers, overall 95%
teachers in England are white
o In 2002 black boys were 3 times more likely to get excluded than white

Oscar Lewis (1950's)

Page 9

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o Broken relationships
o Victimization by crime
o Despair and fatalism

Dalrymple (2001)
The British underclass have developed a culture of
o Passive thinking
o Denial of agency and personal responsibility
o Dishonesty and self-deception
o Rationalisations for self-induced helplessness, such as addiction
o Perverse, primitive, valueless sexualisation
o Absolute…

Page 10

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Male Subcultures
Paul Willis `Lads' (1977)
Mac and Ghail (1994)
o Macho Men ­ hostile to school and authority, unemployment, physical
work/manual jobs
o Academic Achievers ­ working class
o New Enterprise ­ business studies, computing, technology (don't
necessarily do well in academic subjects
o Real Englishmen ­ middle class,…


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