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Durkheim ­ Saw the main role of education as the transmission of
society's norms and values. Social solidarity, specialist skills,
society in miniature.
Parsons ­ Education is like a bridge between the family and wider
society. We are judged in terms of universalistic values and
achieved status.
Davis and…

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Bernstein ­ Restricted and elaborated code
Sugarman ­ 4 working class subcultures that affect educational
achievement; fatalism, collectivism, present-time orientation and
immediate gratification.
Marilyn Howard ­ Children from W/C families have a lower intake
of vitamins and minerals and so weakens their immune system and
have more days off.

Page 3

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Ethnic differences ­ External

Daniel Moynihan ­ many black families are headed by female lone
parents, their children are deprived of adequate care due to parent
struggling financially, as well as lacking a male role model. Sees it
as a cycle, fail at school = fail as parents.
Khan sees…

Page 4

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Angela McRobbie ­ Comparison of girls magazines in 1990's and
1970's. 1970's = emphasis on the importance of getting married
and `not being left on the shelf'. Now contain images of assertive,
independent women.
Sue Sharpe ­ 1970 ­ love, marriage, and children. 1990 ­ school,
qualifications and career. She…


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