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Section A - Births
· Birth Rate = the number of live births per 1000
of the population
· Total fertility rate (TFR) = the average number
of children women will have during their
fertile years (15-44 years)…read more

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Factors determining birth rate
1. The number of women who are of childbearing
age which is usually from 15 ­ 44 years old
2. How fertile they are and how many children they
· The UK'S TFR has risen since 2001 but still remains
lower than in the past.
· In 2001 TFR was at an all-time low of 1.63
children per women which rose in 2006 to 1.84.
· However this is still ,much lower than the peak in
1964 of 2.95 children per woman…read more

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What do these changes suggest?
· The older you are the more harder it is for
· High death rate
· Bigger gap between parents and children
· Poorer socialisation of children
· More children in care…read more

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Reasons for the decline in birth rate
1. changes in the position of women
2. decline in infant mortality rate
3. Children have become an economic liability
4. Child centeredness…read more

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Changes in the position of woman
· Legal equality with men ­ including the right
ot vote
· Increased educational opportunities
· More women in paid emplyment
· Easier access to divorce
· Accesss to abortion and reliable contraception
· Changes in attitudes to family lufe and
womens roles…read more

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