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Key Terms of couples
conjugal roles
· roles carried out by couples that are disrupted by male and female in the household
symmetrical family
· roles that are shared within the family
integrated roles
· roles that are shared/brought together through domestic chores
segregated roles
· roles that are separated and are different
instrumental role
· role of the man ( paid work )
expressive role
· role of the woman ( nurturing )
division of labour
triple shift
dual burden
· women go out to work but also have to look after their children when they come home…read more

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· Parson says males have an instrumental roles
in the family and that conjugal roles were
separated. Men bring in money also known as
the bread-winner to support roles. Husband
and wife are suited to their role…read more

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Young And Wilmott (1973)
· Introduced the concept of `symmetry' as part of
the `march of progress' theory of the family. They
believe that the idea of the symmetry describes a
`sense of balance' between the duties of husband
and wives on various home-centred tasks.
· They argues that women still took on the major
responsibilities for domestic labour and childcare
although men were spending an equivalent
amount of time on home-related activities.…read more

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Young & Wilmott (1973) - research on
conjugal roles
What they found in their research
· Found in their research that symmetrical families was becoming
more equal and similar meaning the roles was becoming more
· They identified in their research a move from segregated roles that
was different to joint conjugal roles which become more equal.
· spouses was beginning to share domestic work and leisure activities
· Identified two stages of the family. Stages 2 and 3. Where they
found people was moving from a stage 2-3 family.
· stage 2 family = conjugal roles largely separated
· stage 3 family = conjugal roles becoming more joint
· In their research they ignored working class
· wasn't a generalised study
· people was outraged with their research
· only looked at middle-class families…read more

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Criticisms of Young & Wilmott (A02)
Ann Oakley (1974)
· Oakley Criticised the research of Young & Wilmott as
they provide an inadequate methodology due to the
figure of 72% of there research was based on one
question. Therefore men who make a very small
contribution will be included. She argues that their
questioning techniques didn't give a valid picture.
Marsha Jones
· Argues that we cannot pin-point families due to the
family structures being typical and says Young and
Wilmott have a negative modernist assumption of the
roles within the family.…read more

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